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Neural Tissue

A&P Ch 11 - 13

Bipolar Neuron 1 dendrite, 1 axon Relays info for sight, smell, & hearing Affects ears, eyes, and nose
Multipolar Neuron 2 or more dendrites, 1 axon
Unipolar Neuron Dendrite on 1 end, axon on rest of process Carries action potential, single process
Cell body or soma Produces neurotransmitters, either on or off, propagates impulses
Depolarization Action potential is formed; meaning, it is the charge reversal caused by the rapid influx of sodium ions inside the cell when a nerve is stimulated
Saltatory Propagation The relatively rapid propagation of an action potential between successive nodes of a myelinated axon
Continuous Propagation Action potential is propagated along unmyelinated axon
Efferent Division of PNS carrying motor commands out via axons
Afferent Division of CNS carrying sensory info into the brain via dendrites
Axon The elongate extension of a neuron that conducts an action potential.
Dendrite A sensory process of a neuron.
Monosynaptic Reflex A reflex in which the sensory afferent neuron synapses directly on the motor efferent neuron.
Polysynaptic Reflex A reflex in which interneurons are interposed between the sensory fiber and the motor neuron(s).
Sensory Neurons Afferent Neurons, division of PNS, delivering info from sensory receptors to CNS.
Withdrawal Reflex Move affected parts of body away from stimulus, triggered by painful stimuli.
Flexor Reflex Representative withdrawal reflex, affecting muscle and limbs.
Plantar Reflex Stroking sole of foot producing curling of the toes.
Babinski sign Stroking infant's foot on side of sole produces fanning of toes. Disappears as infants age as pathways develop.
Stretch Reflex Best known monosynaptic reflex, provides automatic regulation of skeletal muscle.
Glial Cells Cells of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system that support and protect neurons
Astrocytes responsible for maintaining the blood–brain barrier by the stimulation of endothelial cells.
Oligodendrocytes Central nervous system neuroglia that maintain cellular organization within gray matter and provide a myelin sheath in areas of white matter.
Ependymal Cells The layer of cells lining the ventricles and central canal of the central nervous system.
Microglia Phagocytic neuroglia in the central nervous system.
Schwann Cells Neuroglia responsible for the neurilemma that surrounds axons in the peripheral nervous system.
Epidural The space between the spinal dura mater and the walls of the vertebral foramen; contains blood vessels and adipose tissue; a common site of injection for regional anesthesia.
Dura The outermost component of the cranial and spinal meninges.
Subdural Separates dura mater from deeper meningeal layers.
Arachnoid The middle meninx that encloses cerebrospinal fluid and protects the central nervous system.
Subarchnoid A meningeal space containing cerebrospinal fluid; the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater.
Pia The innermost layer of the meninges bound to the underlying neural tissue.
Intraparenchymal Intercerebral hemorrhage
Propagation "Conduction" Suggests flow of charge
Action potential Messages relayed from one location to another in a series of steps
Myelin An insulating sheath around an axon; consists of multiple layers of neuroglial membrane; significantly increases the impulse propagation rate along the axon.
Nissel Bodies The ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria of the perikaryon of a typical neuron.
Blood-Brain Barrier The isolation of the central nervous system from the general circulation; primarily the result of astrocyte regulation of capillary permeabilities.
Patellar Reflex Stretch reflex triggered by passive muscle movement
EDSASPI Epidural, Dura, Subdural, Arachnoid, Subarchnoid, Pia, Intraparenchymal
Polarization Neuron is inactive, waiting for impulse, cytoplasm inside the cell has a negative electrical charge, and the fluid outside the cell has a positive charge.
Resting Potential Electrical difference across the membrane of the neuron
Created by: JCowie024