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Scientific Inquiry

What is meant by scientific inquiry? Way of learning about the natural world by observing, asking questions, proposing answers + testing answers
What is the main goal of science? To understand the natural world
What is the main product of science? Knowledge in form of facts, laws + theories
Why do scientists make observations? To provide evidence to help understand + describe natural world
How do scientists make observations? Using 5 senses (touch, smell, taste, vision + hearing) and often use tools like microscopes, telescopes, meters, radar + sensors
What is an inference? Tentative conclusion based on logic or reasoning
What is meant by empirical knowledge? Knowledge gained through experience
What is a scientific law? General statement based on empirical data, does not explain, only describes
What is a theory? Product of scientist's creativity + inventiveness, explanation of observation or law
What is a hypothesis? Tentative answer, untested explanation
Why can't laws be proven? Bc it is impossible to test every situation that law applies to. Can be proven false if evidence disagrees or contradicts
Why can't theories be proven? Theories are not proved but accepted as best possible exception after being tested extensively w/ repeated observation; can be proven less valid if evidence disagrees or contradicts, theories build on each other
What helps to ensure validity of a scientific investigation? Scientific evidence and explanation
First step of scientific inquiry? Scientist asks testable question + develops hypothesis or possible answer
Second step of scientific inquiry? Scientist designs + performs investigation, makes observations + analyzes them
Third step of scientific inquiry? Scientist draws conclusion based on evidence + compares conclusion w/ hypothesis to determine whether evidence supports hypothesis
Describe relationship between science + technology. Scientists rely on technology to further research, technologists rely on science to understand scientific basis of technological development
What does scientific investigation begin with? A question
What is a variable? Any factor that could affect outcome of investigation
Three types of variables? 1) Variable that is changed (independent or cause variable) 2) Variable affected by change (dependant or effect variable) 3) Unchanged variable that doesn't affect outcome (controlled variable)
Why is it important to only change one independent variable at once? To assume that results were caused by variables changed and not by any other variables identified
In investigation to determine effect of fertilizer on plant growth, identify independent variable. Independent variable = fertilizer
In investigation to determine effect of fertilizer on plant growth, identify dependant variable. Dependant variable = plant growth
In investigation to determine effect of fertilizer on plant growth, state at least 3 controlled variables. Plant species, amount of water, amount of sunlight
Distinguish between prediction and hypothesis. Prediction = suggestion based on prior knowledge and logical reasoning. Hypothesis = tentative answer about outcome of controlled experiment along with explanation
Outline guidelines for making data table. Use ruler to make table, write title that describes data, include units of measurement for each variable, list values of independent variable in left-hand column, list values of dependant variables in column to right
What is a graph? Visual representation of quantitative data
Why are graphs used? To identify a trend or pattern in data
Steps for preparing point and line graph. Draw axises. Write title. Give values. Choose scale. Plot points. Draw line of best set. If more than one line, use different colours or symbols. Provide legend.
X axis? Independent variable (time always goes on x axis)
Y axis? Dependant variable
Created by: lovinglifexoxo