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Medications

Medication classification

QuestionAnswer
Aminoglycosides Action Kills the bacteria cell and effective against aerobic gram-negative infections
Aminoglycosides Side Effects headache, skin rash and fever
Aminoglycosides Adverse Effects Nephrotoxicity and Ototoxicity
Aminoglycosides Monitor nephrotoxicity- BUN, creatinine and U/A results- proteinuria *Intake and Output *ototoxicity- hearing loss, dizziness, light- headedness, tinnitus, fullness in ears
Aminoglycosides Teach Take full course *Small frequent meals and 8 glasses of fluids a day * Take oral medications with food * Report sore throat, watery stools greater than 4-6 per day, severe nausea and vomiting
Aminoglycosides Medication Gentamycin sulfate (Garamycin) Streptomycin sulfate (Streptomycin)
Aminoglycosides used for Usually given parentally because of poorly absorbed by GI tract Sometimes given orally for local effect on GI tract to sterilize bowel prior to intestinal surgery
Cephalosporins Action treat gram-negative organisms and anaerobes- usually bactericidal- treats STD’s, respiratory infections and UTI’s
Cephalosporins Side effects hallucinations, convulsions, abdominal cramps, increased AST and ALT , increased K+, kidney toxicity
Cephalosporins advers effects seizure activity, allergic reactions
Cephalosporins monitor renal toxicity- BUN, creatinine, and I & O *usually lethargy and provide safety measured
Cephalosporins teach Take the full course of the medication *Small frequent meals and 8 glasses of fluids a day * Take oral medications with food *Report severe rash, difficulty breathing, and severe diarrhea
Cephalosporins medication a) Cefazolin (Ancef) b) Cephalexin (Keflex) c) Cefprozil (Cefzil) d) Cefriaxone (Rocephin) e) Cefepime (Maxipim
Penicillin Used to treat respiratory infections, STD’s and UTI’s
Cephalosporins RED FLAG *Don’t’ give if client has prior allergic reaction to PCN
Penicillin Action Most effective against gram-positive organisms- like strept and staph -Bactericidial and bacteriostatic effect-
Penicillin Side effects skin rash, pruritis, angioedema, epigastric distress, colitis, elevated liver enzymes
Penicillin Adverse effects fatal if not treated immediately- N and V, severe dyspnea, stridor, hypotension, tachycardia
Penicillin Monitor/Assess assess for allergies- *take the full course of the medication * If patient has diarrhea-give yogurt to replace normal flora
Penicillin Teach Take on empty stomach- 1 hour before meals or 2 hours after *To report sore throat and watery stools greater than 4-6 stools/day
Penicillin Medication Amoxicillin (Amoxil) Ampicillin (Omnipen)
Sulfanamides-Action (first effective group of ATBs) suppress bacterial growth by inhibiting sunthesis of folic acid
Sulfanamides-Side effects rash, abdominal pain, haundice, headache drowsiness depression photosensitivity
Sulfanamides-Adverse effects neuropathy tinnitus hearing loss and vertigo convulsion
Sulfanamides-Monitor /Assess assess for allergies hydrate client to prevent formations of kidney stones high protein in diet take with food
Sulfanamides-Teach take full course safety precautions if client has vertigo small frequent meals take with food report flank pain increased dusuria
Sulfanamides-Medication sulfamethoxazole -trimethoprim (bactrim) sulfisoxazole (gantrisin)
Sulfanamides- used for treating UTIs and prevent bacterial growth with burns and wounds
Anticoagulant warfrin Action prevent or delay the coagulant of the blood
Anticoagulant warfrin Side effects ecchymosis of the skin , GI problems, hypotension and thrombocytopenia
Anticoagulant warfrin Adverse effect bleeding esp GI purple toe syndrome discoloration caused gy decteased perfusion jaundice burning sensation of feet
Anticoagulant warfrin monitor / Asses monito labs - PT and INR Gi bleeding assess skin for bleeding
Anticoagulant warfrin teach alert client to bleeding problens and how to respond frequent follow up bleed tests do not stop medications use soft toothbrush and electric razor avoid foods high in Vit. K
Anticoagulant warfrin medication warfrin (coumadin)
Anticoagulant warfrin used for treating and prevent thromboembolic disorders in clients that are at risk by preventing the conversion of Vit. K
Anti platelet Action prevent the formation of the natural clotting mechanism in the bosy prevents or dirupts the aggregation of platelets needed to form a clot
Anti platelet Side effects blood dyscrasias hemorrhage GI bleeding bruising hematuria tarry stools
Anti platelet adverse effect tinnitus ototoxicity
Anti platelet monitor/assess monitor bleeding time / VS should stop seven days before surgery
Anti platelet teach carry a medical alert bracelet signs of bleeding
Anti platelet medication asprin (ASA) plavix
Anti platelet used for treating thrombus formation and to clients with a history of MI strokes and cardiac surpery
Cardiac Nitrates: Action increase the oxygenated blood flow to the myocardium by dilating the coronary blood vessels
Cardiac Nitrates: Side effects headache postural hypotension flushing
Cardiac Nitrates: adverse effect blurred vision tachycardia hypotension
Cardiac Nitrates: monitor/ asses use gloves when applying paste remove patch/paste each day at the same time monitor BP and HR
Cardiac Nitrates: teach all forms may cause headache and dizziness if pain persists after 3 NTG tablets at 5 min intervals call doctor change position slowly keep record of medication
Cardiac Nitrates: medication nitroglycerin - can be given SL, topical, transdermal and IV isosorbide Denitrate - Dilatrate - SR isordil
Beta Blockers: Action reduce cardiac workload by slowing heart rate and dacreasing contractility
Beta Blockers: Side effects bradycardia bronchospasm hypotension weight gain dizziness CHF
Beta Blockers: adverse effect hypotension heart block acute CHF blurred vision bronchospasm hyper/hypoglycemia
Beta Blockers: monitor/ assess take apical pulse and BP before administering monitor I&O, daily weights withhold medication if HR is less that 60 bradycardia is very common
Beta Blockers: teach how to chech pulse and BP adrupt withdrawal of medication can lead to severe reaction like sweating headache hypertension and life threatening heart rhythm disturbances change position slowly
Beta Blockers: medication atenolol (tenormin) metoprolol (Lopressor, toprol XL) propranolol (inderal)
Beta Blockers: used for in management of hepertension, angina acute MI
Calcium Channel Blockers Action dilate coronary arteries and preventt coronary artery spasm increases O2 to myocardial and prevents angina slows conduction thru the SA node and AV node to lower heart rate
Calcium Channel Blockers Side effects headache fatigue peripheral edema light headedness
Calcium Channel Blockers adverse effect profound bradycardia CHF hypotension palpitations fluid volume overload
Calcium Channel Blockers monitor / assess evaluate BP and EKG before treatment monitor hepatic and renal lab, headache, blood glucose levels assess for weight gain and edema
Calcium Channel Blockers teach How to take pulse change positions slowly do not crush or chew avoid ETOH reportbruising and bleeding
Calcium Channel Blockers medication Amlodipine (Norvasc) Diltiazem (Cardizem) Verapamil (Calan)
Glycosides Action increasing the contractility and efficiency of myocardial contraction
Glycosides Side effects nausea loss of "usual appetite" headache
Glycosides adverse effect visual disturbances muscle weakness hallucinations dizziness dysrhythmias hypotension anorexia severe vomiting that may cause hypovolemia
Glycosides monitor / assess Monitor Digoxin levels, electrolytes,edema take the apical pulse for 1 full min Hold medication if signs of toxicity
Glycosides teach to check pulse prior to taking meds signs of toxicity weigh self daily do not skip medication
Glycosides medication Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Glycosides used for treatment of CHF and atrial dysrhythmias
Glucocorticords Action Steroid that has metabolic effects on carbohydrates protein and fats has antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive activity
Glucocorticords Side effects few if high doses given for only a few days
Glucocorticords adverse effect muscle wasting weight gain changes in behavior impaired glucose tolerance
Glucocorticords monitor / assess assess VS, lung sounds, weight and edema, depression check skin for bruising and stool for hemocult blood
Glucocorticords teach take with meals avoid ETOH limit Na intake Monitor blood sugar Wear medical alert bracelet
Glucocorticords medication Betamethasone (Celestone) Cortisone (cortone)
Glucocorticords used for acute adrenal insufficiency allergic conditions like asthma dermatitis anemia joint inflammation
Insulin Action restore ability of cells to use glucose as an energy source corrects the state of hyperglycemia
Insulin Side effects hypoglycemia headache confusion drowsiness fatigue shaky
Insulin adverse effect Coma r/t inadequate dosage and insulin overdosage caused by inadequte food intake excessive exercise or excessive insulin administration
Insulin monitor monitor blood glucose levels assess for long term complications hypertension beart diseade/ stroke retinopathy nephropathy neuropathy that leads to ulcerations aputatuion and gastroparesis
Insulin teach aspects of insulin admin and sites signs and sumptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia regular exercise foot care avoid smoking and ETOH how to check blood glucose dietary restrictions and wight control regular exercise foot care avoid smoking
Insulin medication Humulin R, Novolin R short acting onset: 0.5 - 1 hour peak: 2-4 Hours Duration: 5-7 hours
Fundamental Principle about insulin Therapy the right amount of insulin must be available to cells when glucose is available in the blood
Insulin Medication Humulin N, Novolin N NPH onset: 1-2 Hours Peak: 4-12 hours duration: 18-24 hours
Insulin used to treat Type 1 (IDDM) and Type 2 (NIDDM) and diabetic ketoacidosis
Antiemetics Action certain stimuli activate the vomiting center
Antiemetics Side effects hypotension sedation
Antiemetics adverse effects not common
Antiemetics monitor / assess assess VS and signs of hypotension and mood changes Monitor I&O for urinary retention liver and renal functions
Antiemetics teach avoid ETOH and excessive sunlight
Antiemetics medication Promethazine (phenergan) Metoclopramine (Reglan) Ondansetron (Zofran)
Antiemetics used for preventing and treat vomiting
Histamine H2 Antagonists Action Reduces gastric acid secretions by blocking histamine 2 in the gastric parietal cells
Histamine H2 Antagonists side effects diaphoresis rash headache dry mouth
Histamine H2 Antagonists adverse effects rare
Histamine H2 Antagonists monitor / assess encourage no smoking ar ETOH
Histamine H2 Antagonists teach Avoid antacid use within 1 hour of dose and gastric irritants like ETOH, ASA, and NSAIDS
Histamine H2 Antagonists medication Cimetidine (Tagamet) Ranitidine (Zantac) Famotidine (Pepcid)
Histamine H2 Antagonists used for treating duodenal ulcer gastric ulser reflux prevention of stress ulcers
Proton Pump Inhibitors Action Block acid production by inhibiting the H+-K+ therefore blocking the formation of gastric acid
Proton Pump Inhibitors side effects Headache constipation abdominal pain flatulence rash hyperglycemia dry mouth
Proton Pump Inhibitors adverse effects GI hemorrhage CVA shock
Proton Pump Inhibitors monitor / assess monitor liver function test CBC and BUN and creatine
Proton Pump Inhibitors teach report severe diarrhea
Proton Pump Inhibitors medication Omeprazole (Prilosec) Pantoprazole (Protonix)
Proton Pump Inhibitors used for treating GERD and healing and reduction of heartburn symptoms
Analgesics Opioids Action relief of severe acute and chronic pain Binds to opioid receptors troughout the central nervous system
Analgesics Opioids side effect nausea and vomiting anorexia sedation constipation dizziness ligh headedness
Analgesics Opioids adverse effect respiratory depression circulatory depression
Analgesics Opioids monitor / assess Assess pain for type intensity and location pain scale respiratory rate depth and rhythm LOC and allergic reactions administer anti-emetic nausea
Analgesics Opioids teach Avoid ETOH and CNS depressants warn client about ambulation and other activities like driving while taking the medication
Analgesics Opioids medication Codiene (Paveral Oxycodone (Oxycontin) Morphine sulfate (duramorph)
Analgesics Opioids used for most commonly used in postoperative setting and malignancy
Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Action Decreases prostaglandins synthesis by inhibiting and enzyme needed for biosynthesis
Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) side effect Nausea abdominal pain anorexia dizziness drowsiness
Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) adverse effect Nephrotoxicity dysuria hematuria oliguria
Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) monitor / assess Assess for renal and hepatic function ear and eye problems blurred vision and tinnitus and therapeutic response like decrease in pain
Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) teach report blurred vision ringing in eares changes in urine pattern increased weight and edema avoid driving if dizziness occurs
Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) medication Ibuprofen (Advil) Naproxen (Naprosyn) Ketoprofen (toradol)
Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used for treating mild to moderate pain osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis
anticoagulant Warfrin antidote Vit. K
Anticoagulant Heparin action plays a role in the intrinsic pathway in the clotting cascade
anticoagulant Heparin used with clients who have DVT, PE, embolisn and atrial fibrillation
Anticoagulant Heparin antidote Protamine sulfate
Anticoagulant Heparin side effects hemorrhage hematuris bleeding gums thrombocytopenia
Anticoagulant Heparin medications Heparin Enoxaprin (Lovenox)
Anticoagulant Heparin adverse effects serious forn of thrombocutopia (white clot syndrome) can be fatal
Anticoagulant Heparin Monitor / assess monitor PTT and INR signs of bleeding
Anticoagulant Heparin teach be alert to signs of bleeding observe for hematuria blood ing stool and bleeding nose
insulin Medication Humulin 70/30, Novolin 70/30 onset 0.5 - 1 hour Peak: 5-10 hours Duration: 14-20 hours
Created by: ED.