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68WM6 Ph 2 Test 5

Respiratory

QuestionAnswer
Define External respiration? Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lung and the environment
Define Internal Respiration? Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level
What does the Pharynx consist of? Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx, Eustachian tubes
What anatomy makes up the nose? Turbonates (conchae), Paranasal sinuses, Smell receptors, Nasolacrimal ducts
What does the bronchial tree consist of? Left and Right bronchus, Bronchioles, Terminal bronchioles (alveolar ducts), Alveoli
How does oxygenated blood return to the heart for distribution to the body? Pulmonary veins
Define visceral pleura? Thin, moist serous membrane that covers the surface of each lung
Define parietal pleura? Thin, moist serous membrane that covers the thoracic cavity
Define pleural cavity? Airtight vacuum that contains negative pressure that helps keep the lungs inflated
How is respiration regulated? Nervous Control-medulla oblongata and pons of the brain; chemoreceptors-in the carotid and aorta
What are some types of adventitious breath sounds? Sibilant wheezes, Sonorous wheezes, Crackles, Pleural friction rubs
List non-invasive diagnostic lung tests? Chest x-ray (Roentgenogram), Computed Tomography (CT),Pulmonary Function Test (PFT)
List invasive diagnostic lung tests? Mediastinoscopy, Laryngoscopy, Bronchoscopy
List lung lab tests? Sputum specimen, Cytology studies
What is a surgical intervention for aspiration of fluids with a needle? Thoracentesis
How is dissolved oxygen expressed in arterial blood gases? PaO2
How is oxygen bonded with hemoglobin expressed in arterial blood gases? SaO2
The respiratory component of the acid-base balance shows what? The relationship between pH and PaCO2
What is an invasive technique to measure arterial blood gases? Radial artery stick
What is a non-invasive technique to measure arterial blood gases? Pulse oximetry
How does a pulse ox work? measures the amount of light being absorbed by oxygenated and deoxygenated blood and displays a percentage value
What are clinical manifestations of deviated septum? Stertorous breathing, Dyspnea, Postnasal drip
What causes deviated septum? caused by congenital abnormality or injury
What are Nasal Polyps caused by? caused by inflammation
What are the clinical manifestations of nasal polyps? Stertorous breathing, Dyspnea, Postnasal drip
What are three possible diagnostic tests used to diagnose allergic rhinitis? Physical exam, Skin testing, Serum radioallergosorbent test (RAST)
Signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea? Apneic, Headache, Personality changes, Hypertension and cardiac dysrhythmias
Diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnea? Polysomnography
Medical management for moderate to severe sleep apnea? Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP); Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP).
Two types of histamine receptors? Histamine 1 (H1) receptors: Mediate smooth muscle contraction and dilation of capillaries; Histamine 2 (H2) receptors: Mediate acceleration of the heart rate and gastric acid secretion.
List traditional antihistamines? diphenhydramine (Benadryl), azatadine (Optimine), dimenhydrinate (Dramamine), promethazine (Phenergan), brompheniramine (Dimetane)
What are some non-drowsy antihistamines? fexofenadine (Allegra), loratadine (Claritin)
Three groups of nasal decongestants? Adrenergics ( sympathomimetics), Topical corticosteroids, Anticholinergics
Types of adrenergics (sympathomimetics)? oxymetazoline (Afrin), pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)
Types of topical corticosteroids? beclomethasone dipropionate (Beconase), fluticasone (Flonase), triamcinolone (Nasacort)
Name an anticholinergic? ipratropium (Atrovent)
Side effects of decongestants? Nervousness, Insomnia, Palpitations, Tremor
Most common adverse effects of intranasal steroids are? localized and include mucosal irritation and dryness
The walls of the thoracic cavity are lined with a serious membrane composed of tough endothelial cells called? PARIETAL PLEURA
What finding is most closely associated with TB? night sweats
What is cor pumonale? A complication that may occur in COPD, in which some of the capillaries surrounding the alveoli are destroyed, resulting in pulmonary hypertension, blood returning to the right side of the heart, and signs and symptoms of right-sided HF.
Most pulmonary embolisms (PEs) originate from what? DEEP-VEIN THROMBOSIS (DVT)
Chest pain from pulmonary embolism (PE) is typically described as? sudden, sharap, constant, nonradiating, pleuritic and worsens on inspiration
Peak flow monitoring measures what? HOW WELL AIR MOVES OUT OF THE LUNGS DURIN FORCEFUL EXHALATION
The primary goal for the patient with bronchiectasis is that the patient will? maintain removal of bronchial secretions
What is a nursing intervention for a pt with “ineffective airway clearance” diagnosis? 1)OFFER SMALL, FREQUENT, HIGH CALORIE PROTIEN FEEDINGS, 2) ENCOURAGE GENEROUS FLUID INTAKE, and 3) HAVE PT TURN AND COUGH EVERY 2 HOURS; TEACH EFFECTIVE COUGHING TECHNIQUE
The patient with respiratory acidosis demonstrates what? 1) DISORIENTATION, 2) pH OF LESS THAN 7.35, and 3) RAPID RESPIRATIONS
Patient teaching after a tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy would include: 1) AVOID ATTEMPTING TO CLEAR THE THROAT, COUGHING, AND SNEEZING, 2) AVOID VIGOROUS NOSE BLOWING FOR 1 TO 2 WEEKS, 3) RESUME FOODS AND FLUIDS AS TOLERATED, and 4) NOTIFY THE PHYSICIAN IN CASE OF INCREASED PAIN, FEVER, OR BLEEDING
Medical management of pulmonary edema includes what? 1) FUROSEMIDE (LASIX), 2) OXYGEN THERAPY, 3) HIGH FOWLERS POSITION, and 4) MORPHINE SULFATE TO DECREASE RESPIRATORY RATE
Pt education on sputum collection should include what? 1) EXPLAIN THE NEED TO COLLECT THE SPECIMEN, 2) ENCOURAGE FLUID INTAKE, 3) NOTIFY STAFF AS SOON AS SPECIMEN IS COLLECTED SO IT CAN BE SENT TO THE LAB WITHOUT DELAY, 4) PLACE SPUTUM SPECIMEN IN STERILE CONTAINER
Medical management and nursing interventions of the patient with pulmonary embolism usually include: 1) BED REST, 2) ADMISTRATION OF IN HEPARIN PER PROTOCOL, 3) ELEVATION OF LOWER EXTREMITIES, 4) OXYGEN PER MASK OR NC
A new blood assay test that offers a promising alternative in TB testing is? QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test
Rapid and deeper respirations are stimulated by the respiratory center of the brain when? carbon dioxide levels increase
The tendency of molecules of a substance to move from a region of high concetration to one of lower concentration is the passive process at in in the exchange of gases between the blood capillary and alveolar area is? Diffusion
Each alveolus is coated with a thin lipoprotein covering that prevents it from collapsing after each breath called? surfactant
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in external respiration takes place where? alveoli and pulmonary capillaries
An abnormal condition in which there is discomfort in breathing in any but an erect sitting position is called? Orthopnea
The CDC currently recommends that healthcare workers who care for TB-infected pt wear what type of mask? a small-micron, fitted filtration mask
When should physicial ordered blood culture and sputum diagnostic tests be given? before initiation of antibiotic therapy
An important nursing intervention related to a pt who just returned from a bronchoscopy is? No food or fluids should be given until the pt gag reflex returns
What type of thoracic drainage system should be used to promote reexpansion of a lung after a lacerated pleura? Closed system to maintain the lungs' normal negative pressure
A therapeutic nursing intervention for a 2nd day post op pt recovering from thoracic surgery would be? Helping the pt cough and deep breathe by splinting the anterior and posterior chest
Discharge teaching for a pt with epistaxis would include? Avoid vigorous nose blowing and strnuous activity
Which type of medication is used as rescue medication in an acute asthma exacerbation? Short acting beta1 -agonists
What is cor pulmonale characterized by? Right ventricular hypertrophy secondary to increased pulmonary vascular resistance
Asthma is best characterized as? an inflammatory disease
The most common etiologic factor for a noncompliant TB patient is? little or not motivation to adhere to a long-term drug regimen
What are three types of anthrax? Cutaneous, gastrointestional, inhalational
An appropriate nursing intervention for a pt with active TB would be? place the patient in acid-fast bacilli (AFB) isolation precautions
Define adventitious? abnormal sounds superimposed on breath sounds, including sibilant wheezes, sonorous wheezes, crackles, and pleural friction rubs
Define atelectasis? the collapse of alveoli, preventing the resiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen; occures from occlusion of air to a portion of the lung; common postoperative complication from a mucous plug resulting from shallow breathing; leads to lung collapse
Define bronchoscopy? allows visualization of the larynx, the trachea, and the bronchi using a bronchoscope
Define cor pumonale? an abnormal cardiac condition characterized by hypertrophy of the right ventricle as a result of hypertension of the pulmonary circulation; results from edema; is a late complication of emphysema
Define coryza? also known as rhinitis or the common cold; is an inflammatory condition of the mucous membranes of the nose and accessory sinuses and characterized by edema of the nasal mucous membrane; caused by a virus
Define crackles? short, discrete, interrupted crackling or bubbling sounds that are most commonly heard during inspiration; occur when air is forced through respiratory passages narrowed by fluid, mucus, or pus
Define cyanosis? slightly bluish, grayish, slatelike, or dark purpole discoloration of the skin resulting from excessive amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood
Define dyspnea? difficulty breathing; is a subjective finding
Define embolism? caused by the passage of a foreign substance into the pulmonary artery or its branches resulting in obstruction of the blood supply to lung tissue and subsequent collapse; most common pulmonary perfusion abnormality
Define empyema? accumulation of pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural space; caused when fluid becomes infected
Define epistaxis? bleeding from the nose; caused by congestion of the nasal membranes leading to capillary rupture
Define exacerbation? an increase in the serriousness of a disease or disorder as marked by greater intensity in the signs or symptoms of emphysema
Define extrinsic? to be caused by external factors such as environmental allergens
Define hypercapnia? greater than normal amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood
Define hypoventilation? the condition in which the amount of air that enters the alveoli and takes part in gas exchange is not adequate for the body's metabolic needs
Define hypoxia? oxygen deficiency
Define intrinsic? to be caused by internal causes
Define orthopnea? an abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand to breathe deeply or comfortably
Define pleural friction rubs? low-pitched, grating or creaking lung sounds that occur when inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during respiration
Define pneumothorax? a collection of air or gas in the pleural space, causing the lungs to collapse
Define sibilant wheeze? musical, high-pitched, squeaking or whistling sounds caused by rapid movement of air through narrowed bronchioles.
Define sonorous wheeze? low-pitched, loud, coarse, snoring sounds
Define stertorous? characterized by a harsh snoring sound; is a major manifestation of nasal septal deviations and polyps
Define tachypnea? an abnormally rapid rate of breathing
Define thoracentesis? inserting a needlelike instrument into the pleural space and removing the fluid
Deifine virulent? capable of producing disease
Define adrenergics (sympathomimetics)? drugs that stimulate the sympathetic nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system which use epinephrine or epinephrine-like substances as neurotransmitters
Define antagonists? drugs that exert an action opposite to that of other drug or compete for the same receptor sites
Define anticholinergics (parasympatholytics)? drugs that block the action of acetylcholine and similar substances at acetylcholine receptors, which results in inhibition of the transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses
Define antigens? substances that, upon entering the body, are capable of inducing specific products of such responses, such as certain antibodies and specifically sensitezed T lymphocytes; can be soluble, particulate, insoluble
Define antihistamines? substances capable of reducing the physiologic and pharmacologic effects of histamine, including a wide variety of drugs that block histamine receptors
Define antitussive? a drug that reduces couphing, often by inhibiting neural activity in the cough center of the CNS
Define corticosteroids? any of the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, either in natural or synthetic drug form. Effect metabolic processes throughout the body.
Define decongestants? drugs that reduce congestion or swelling, especially of the upper or lower respiratory tract
Define empiric therapy? a method of treating disease based on observations and experience without knowledge of the precise cause of or mechanism responsible for the disorder or the way in which the therapeutic drug or procedure produces improvement or cure
Define expectorants? drugs that increase the flow of fluid in the respiratory tract, usually by reducing the viscosity of bronchial and tracheal secretions, and facilitate their removal by coughing and ciliary action
Define histamine antagonists? drugs that compete with histamine for binding sites on histamine receptors
Define influenza? a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract caused by a myxovirus and transmitted by airborne droplets
Define nonsedating antihistamines? newer medications that work peripherally to block the actions of histamine and therefore do not have the central nervous system effects of many of the older antihistamines; second generation antihistamines; aka peripherally acting antihistamines
Define reflex stimulation? an irritaion of the respiratory tract occurring in response to an irritation of the GI tract
Define rhinovirus? any of about 100 serologically distinct ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that cause about 40% of acute respiratory illnesses.
Define sympathomimetic drugs? a class of drugs whose effects mimic those resulting from the stimulation of organs and structures by the sympathetic nervous system. They do this by occupying adrenergic receptor sites and acting as agonists.
Define palliative? drugs that treat symptoms of an illness or disease process but not the cause
Define allergen? any substance that evokes an allergic response
Define allergic asthma? bronchial asthma caused by hypersensitivity to an allergen
Define bronchial asthma? the general term for recurrent and reversible shortness of breath resulting from narrowing of the bronchi and bronchioles; often referred to simply as asthma.
Define bronchodialators? medications that imporve airflow by relaxing bronchial smooth muscle cells
Define emphysema? a condition of the lungs characterized by enlargement of the air spaces distal to the bronchioles
Define immunoglobulins? proteins belonging to any of five structurally and antigenically distinct classes of antibodies present in the serum and external secretions of the body; play a major role in immune responses
Define status asthmaticus? a prolonged asthma attack
Define aerobic? requiring oxygen for the maintenance of life
Define antitubercular drugs? drugs used to treat infections caused by mycobacterium bacterial species
Define bacillus? a rod-shaped bacterium
Define granulomas? small nodular aggregations of inflammatory cells; usually characterized by clearly delimited boundaries as found in tuberculosis?
Define isoniazid? the primary and most commonly prescribed TB drug
Define multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)? TB that deomnstrates resistance to two or more drugs
Define slow acetylator? an individual with a genetic defect that causes a deficiency in the enzyme needed to metabolize isoniazid
Define tubercle? the characteristic lesion of TB; a small round gray translucent granulomatous lesion, usually with a caseated (cheesy) consistency in ints inerior
Define tubercle bacilli? another common name for rod-shaped TB bacteria
Created by: princess3734