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Chapter 3 Genetics

inherited Trait a characteristic that is passed on from parent to offspring
heredity the passing of inherited traits from parent to offspring
genetics the study of heredity
acquired trait a trait influenced by experience or the environment
hybrid an organism produced by the crossing of parents that have two different forms of the same trait
dominant trait the form of an inherited trait that masks the other form of the same trait
recessive trait the hidden form of an inherited trait that will only show in the phenotype if it is paired with another recessive trait
gene the portion of the chromosome that controls a particular inherited trait
chromosome one of the threadlike structures in the nucleus of a cell that stores detailed directions for the cell's activities
genotype the genes that are inherited by an organism for a particular trait
phenotype the way in which a genotype is expressed, or shown, in an organism
X chromosome chromosomes that combine to determine a person's gender - MALE
Y chromosome chromosome that combine to determine a person's gender
pedigree a chart that traces the history of traits in a particular family
carrier an organism that has inherited the gene for a specific trait but does not express that trait
genetic disorder a condition caused by mutation, or change, in a gene or a set of genes
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid is a long complex molecule that contains the genetic code of an organism
Genome consists of all the DNA that makes up an organism
Genetic engineering a way of intentionally changing a genetic sequence in DNA so that a particular trait is produced
Geneticist a scientist who studies how heredity works
Gene splicing takes genes from one organism and adds them to the genes of another organism
Clone an organism that receives all of its DNA from one parent and is genetically identical to that parent
Variation a difference among members of the same species that enables individuals to better survive and reproduce
mutation is a change in an organism's genetic makeup
natural selection occurs when the organisms that are best suited to their environments survive and reproduce successfully
antibiotic kills disease causing bacteria
Created by: dcaeschliman