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endocrine drugs

pharm exam 3: hormonal agents

QuestionAnswer
define hormone chemical, synthesized within an organism which alters the rate of cellular processes (metabolism)
sources of hormones used as drugs animals, plants, fermentation
2 types of hormones steroid and protein
describe steroid hormones cholesterol base; taken by mouth
describe protein hormones destroyed by digestive enzymes; cannot be taken by mouth
hormones released from posterior pituitary oxytocin; ADH
hormones released from anterior pituitary TSH; ACTH; FSH; LH; grwoth hormone; Prolactin; endorphins
function of oxytocin (pitocin) stimualtes uterine muscles, promotes ejection of milk from breasts
when will uterus respond to pitocin? only when pregnant
therapeutic uses of pitocin induce labor, constrict uterus, decrease hemorrhage after birth
Why would patient have hemorrhage after birth? uterus is not contracting well
kinetics of pitocin IV
side effects of pitocin uterine tetany (seizure = clamping down)
nursing considerations of pitocin titration of dosage according to uterine response; monitoring fetal heart rate
action of ADH (vasopressin) maintain osmotic pressure and extracellular fluids by water reabsorption in distal tubules of kidney
3 examples of osmoreceptors and vascular baroreceptors carotid; aortic; pulmonary
when is vasopressin released? blood osmolarity increases; extracellular fluid decreases
define inappropriate ADH increased secretion
define anuria no urine output; water retention; hyponatremia
When vasopressin is prescribed what treatment is seen along with it? fluid restriction
describe diabetes insipidus decrease secretion; polyuria
what does polyuria lead to in diabetes insipidus dehydration; hypernatremia, polydipsia
define polydipsia excessive thirst
What is DI associated with brain trauma; meningitis
prototypes for decreased ADH secretion vasopressin (Pitressin); desmopressin acetate (DDAVP)
Why is DDAVP the most common ADH secretion prototype no vasopressor action = does not elevate BO
action of vasopressin/DDAVP restore fluid and electrolytes
kinetics of vasopressin/DDAVP po (DDAVP); IM; SQ; nasal spray; sublingual
what type of hormone is vasopressin/DDAVP steroid
side effects of vasopressin/DDAVP HTN; water intoxication; anginal pain; cardiac arrest
signs and symptoms of water intoxication headache; drowsiness; confusion
nursing considerations of wasopressin/DDAVP monitor urinary output; specific gravity; EKG
dynamics of growth hormone (somatotropin) body growth, cellular protein (needs thyroid); fat metabolism; increased hepatic glucose
names of excess in growth hormone gigantism, acromegaly
describe acromegaly after growth plates close; GH still released; fingers enlarge
name of deficiency in growth hormone dwarfism
describe dwarfism proportional but short
describe chondroplasia little people = big torso; small arms
what happens to frontal lobe in gigantism thins out
drug prototype for growth hormone excess octreotide (Sandostatin)
what does octreotide (sandostatin) do suppress GH release
How is octreotide (sandostatin) used alone or with radiation/surgery
octreotide (sandostatin) kinetics po
side effects of octreotide (sandostatin) constipation
drug prototype for growth hormone deficit somatrem (protropin) and somatotropin (Humatrope)
When is somatrem (protropin) given if child is in low percentile for consecutive years
effects of somatrem (protropin) on children will grow 1 inch per year and can only give for 5 years
dynamics of somatrem (protropin)/somatotropin (humatrope) new formed bones (before epiphyses formed) = increased height
side effects of somatrem (protropin)/somatotropin (humatrope) hyperglycemia (diabetes); stimulates metabolism and damages pancreas
metabolism is associated with which gland thyroid
actions of thyroid increased metabolic rate; increased CO; protein metabolism; regulated calcium metabolism; growth and development of CNS
define goiter enlarged thyroid
what does a goiter result from low iodine in diet or soil
What region of the country has low iodine in diet midwest
where do you get iodine in diet shell fish; salt water; fish; seaweed; vegetables
Why does goiter result from low idoine in diet gland enlarges to try to produce more
What drug is used for goiter iodine
what fish is high in iodine eel
what vegetables are high in iodine spinach, kale, dark green vegetables
kinetics of iodine po (iodized salt)
What is given before a goiter surgery Lugal's solution or SSKI
define SSKI saturated solution of potassium iodine
How far before surgery is Lugal's solution/SSKI give 10 days before surgery
why is Lugal's solution/SSKI given before goiter surgery to make thyroid less vascular
nursing considerations when administering iodine give in juice, coke; use a straw to prevent staining teeth
When is goiter surgically fixed if it is so big it interferes with airway
define cretinism not enough iodine for brain = develop mental retardation in 6 months
Why is thyroid funciton checked in all newborns to early diagnose cretinism if present
is damage in cretinism reversible? not after 6 months old
symptoms of hypothyroidism slowing of mind/body; weak heartbeat; constipation; slow reflexes; high LDL; hair thinning; depression; big tongue; croaky voice; dry skin; cold skin; cold intolerance
define myxedema muscles enlarged; swelling of muscle; hypothyroidism
prototype for hypothyroidism T4 levothyroxine sodium (synthroid)
prototype for hypothyroidism T3 cytomel
kinetics of levothyroixine/cytomel po
What medications do levothyrodine/cytomel interact with insulin and oral hypoglycemics (anything that affects metabolism)
What effect does levothyroxine/cytomel and insulin cause drug induced hyperthyroidism
why should levotyroxine/cytomel be taken on an empty stomach better absorption
nursing considerations of levothyroxine/cytomel monitor thyroid function studies
patient education for levothyroxine/cytomel hypo and hyperthyroid symptoms; do not stop without consultation; full effect seen in a couple of weeks
excessive thyroid hormone grave's disease (thyrotoxicosis)
Symptoms of grave's disease increased BMR; weight loss; nervous; increased heart rate; exopthamus
why does exopthamus occur in grave's disease tissue behind eye begins to grow and push eyes forward
Created by: 1818554924