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Earth Quakes

Earthquake Vibrations in Earth caused by the sudden release of energy, usually as a result of the movement of rocks along a fault.
Crust The Earth's outer layer; the coolest and least dense layer of the earth.
Fault A fracture in bedrock, a long which blocks of rock on opposite sides of the fracture move.
Mantle The layer of the Earth beneath the crust. It is about 2900 km. thick, and it makes up about 83% of the Earth's interior.
Lithosphere The cool, solid outer shell of the Earth. It consists of the crust and the rigid uppermost part of the mantle and is broken up into segments, or plates.
Lithospheric Plates Ride on top of the Earth's crust. Large portions of crust.
Seismologists A scientist who studies Earthquakes.
Epicenter The point on the surface directly above the focus.
Focus The point at which a rock under stress breaks and triggers an earthquake.
Seismic Waves Vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an Earthquake.
P-Waves Fastest moving waves that go forward and backward (push and pull). Causes buildings to contract and expand.
S-Waves Not the slowest or fastest moving waves. They go side to side. Shakes building from side to side.
Surface Wave Slowest moving waves that create violent ground movements.
Seismograph Records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through the Earth.
Magnitude A measurement of an Earthquake's strength.
Richter Scale Rates the amount of energy an Earthquake releases/ magnitude.
Mercalli Scale Rates the Earthquake based off how much damage is done.
Moment Magnitude Scale Rates how much energy is released by magnitude and damage.
Tsunami Water displaced by the earthquake may form a large wave.
Liquefication An earthquake's violent shaking suddenly turns loose, soft soil into liquid mud.
Aftershock An earthquake that occurs after a large earthquake in the same area.
Base Isolators Isolates a building from its foundation and prevent some of an earthquake's energy from entering the building.
Shear Corewalls Transfers some of a quake's energy from roofs and floors to the building's foundation.
Tension Ties These devices firmly "tie" the floors and ceilings of a building to walls. They absorb and scatter earthquake energy and thus reduce damage.
Cross Braces Places between stories to stiffen a building's frame and absorb energy during an earthquake.
Dampers Work like the shock absorbers in a car to absorb some of the energy of siesmic waves
Flexible Pipe When an earthquake happens it moves around without breaking, keeping gasses and water in.
Tension When an earthquake happens the rock stretches out.
Compression When an earthquake happens the rock gets squeezed together and up.
Shearing When the earth brakes.
Plateau Flat ground that has been pushed up from an earthquake.
Normal Fault A fault in witch the hanging wall has moved down relative to the foot wall.
Reverse Fault A fault in witch the hanging wall has moved up relative to the foot wall.
Strike- Slip Fault When the earths crust move horizontally.
Created by: 1962120076