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Earthquake Vocab

Earthquake Energy waves passing through Earth, caused by a sudden shift along a fault line, or by volcanic activities.
Crust Outermost, rocky layer of Earth.
Fault Crack within Earth's rocky crust, where rocks move past each other.
Mantle A layer of Earth's surface, lying just below the crust and above the inner core.
Lithosphere Outermost layer of Earth's surface which is rocky and solid; includes the crust and the rigid part of the upper mantle.
Lithospheric Plates One of the pieces of Earth's rocky crust that rests and moves on the semi-liquid mantle.
Seismologist A person who studies earthquakes.
Epicenter The point on the surface directly above the focus.
Focus The point at which a rock under stress breaks and triggers an earthquake.
Seismic Waves Energy an earthquake releases.
P-Waves Causes buildings to contract and expand.
S-Waves Shakes buildings from side to side.
Surface Waves Shakes buildings violently.
Seismograph A device that records the ground movements caused by seismic waves.
Richter Scale Determines the magnitude by measuring seismic waves and fault movements.
Mercalli Scale Determines the rate of an earthquake by looking at the damage.
Moment Magnitude Scale Estimates a rating system.
Liquefaction The process in which an earthquake's violent shaking turns loose, soft soil into liquid mud.
Tsunami Large ocean waves usually caused by strong earthquakes below the ocean floor.
Aftershock An earthquake that occurs after a large earthquake centered in the same area.
Base Isolators Reduces the amount of energy that reaches a building during an earthquake.
Shear Core Wall Walls used to protect a building from falling over in an earthquake.
Tension Ties Tie the floor and ceiling of a building together. They scatter the damage, reducing the energy.
Cross Braces Placed between stories to stiffen a buildings frame and absorb the energy during an earthquake.
Mass Damper Absorb most of the energy from seismic waves. Reduce great damage.
Flexible Pipes Pipes that bend while earthquake energy passes through them. Prevent fires and floods.
Shearing Stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions in a sideways movement.
Plateau A land form that has high elevation and a more or less surface.
Tension Pulls on the crust, makes the middle of the rock thinner.
Compression Squeezes the rock and folds or breaks it.
Normal Fault The hanging wall slips downward below the footwall.
Reverse Fault The hanging wall slides up and over the footwall.
Strike-Slip Fault There is little up-or-down motion.
Created by: 1962116900