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Lymphatic system

What does the lymphatic system do? Protects us against disease caused by pathogens. Responds to environmental pathogen, toxins, and abnormal body cells such as cancer.
what are the four parts of the Lymphatic system? lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymphoid tissues, and lymphocytes phagocytes and other immune system cells.
What do lymph vessels do? carry lymph.
what vessels does the lymphatic system start? lymphatic capillaries
What causes lymphedema? blockage of lymph drainage from a limb
What are the three types of lymphocytes? T cells, B cells and NK cells
How does lymph flow? from blood plasma to lymph and back to the venous system
What does the lymph system carry? hormones, nutrients, and waste products
What are lacteals? special lymphatic capillaries in small intestine
What do lacteals transport? lipids from the digestive tract
How do the lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries? start as pockets rather than tubes, have larger diameters, thinner walls, flat or irregular in section, endothelial cells loosely bound together with overlap
What does the overlap act as? allows fluids, solutes, viruses, and bacteria to enter and prevents the return to intercellular space
How does lymph flow? from capillaries to larger lymphatic vessels containing one way valves.
What are the lymphatics divided in to? Superficial lymphatics and deep lymphatics
what are superficial lymphatics? skin, mucus membranes, and serous membranes lining body cavities
What are deep lymphatics? larger vessels that accompany deep arteries and veins
What do superficial and deep lymphatics do? join to form large lymphatic trunks. Trunks empty into two major collecting vessels: right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct
What drains into the thoracic duct? everything inferior to the diaphragm and superior to the diaphragm on the left side.
What drains into the right lymphatic duct? right jugular trunk, right subclavian trunk, and right bronchiomediastinal trunk
What is the Cisterna chili? sac-like chamber at base`
Where are lymphocytes produced and stored? lymphoid tissues (tonsils) lymphoid organs (spleen, thymus) and in red bone marrow
What do lymphocytes do? detect problems and travel to site of injury or infection
Where do lymphocytes go? from blood to interstitial fluid through capillaries and returns to venous blood through lymphatic vessels
What are the lymphoid tissues? connective tissues dominated by lymphocytes.
What is a lymphoid nodule? areolar tissue with densely packed lymphocytes
What is the germinal center? contains dividing lymphocytes
What are the lymphoid nodules? palatine tonsil, lingual tonsil, pharyngeal tonsil
Where are the lymphoid nodules? lymph nodes, spleen, respiratory tract, and along the digestive and urinary tract
What is MALT? lymphoid tissues associated with digestive system, peyer's patches and the appendix
What are the lymphoid organs? lymph nodes, thymus, spleen.
what are the lymphoid organs separated from the surrounding tissue by? fibrous connective tissue capsule
What are the lymphoid functions? early warning system
what is the early warning system? antigen presentation
what is the antigen presentation? first step in the immune response, extracted antigens are "presented" to lymphocytes or attached ot dendritic cells to stimulate lymphocytes
What are the lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes there for? distributed to monitor peripheral infections and stimulates macrophages and lymphocytes in the nodes
What are the lymph node functions? filter-purifies lymph before return to venous system. Macrophages- engulf debris and pathogens. protect against pathogens in digestive and respiratory tract. help to keep stuff isolated to one area of the body instead of vital organs in the trunk
What are lymph glands? large lymph nodes at groin and base of the neck
What are the lymph node structures hilus and trabeculae
what is the hills? shallow indentation where blood vessels and nerves reach the lymph node
what is the trabecular? bundles of collagen fibers that extend from capsule into interior of lymph node
What are afferent lymphatic vessels? carry lymph from peripheral tissues to lymph node
What are efferent lymphatic vessels? leave lymph node at hilus and carry lymph to venous system
How does lymph flow? afferent lympahtic vessel, flows through lymph node in a network of sinuses.
What is a sub capsular sinus? contains macrophages and dendritic cells
what does the outer cortex contain? B cells within the germinal centers
What is the deep cortex dominated by? T cells entering via blood vessels
What does the medulla cortex contain? B cells and plasma cells that are organized into lines called medullary cords
Where does lymph flow end? comes into the hilus and out via efferent lymphatics
Where is the thymus located? mediastinum
What are the divisions of the thymus? 2 thymic lobes, septa divide lobes into smaller lobules
What are lobules divided into? contains a dense outer cortex and a pale central medulla
What is in the cortex of the thymus? reticular epithelial cells (REC's)
What do REC's do? maintain blood-thymus barrier and secrete thymic hormones
What do thymic hormones stimulate? stem cell divisions and T cell differentiation
Does the medulla in the thymus have a blood-brain barrier? no T cells can enter or leave the bloodstream
What do lymphocytes do? divide in the cortex, T cells migrate into medulla, mature T cells leave the thymus by medullary blood vessels
What are 3 functions of the spleen? removal of abnormal blood cells and other blood components by phagocytosis, storage of iron recycled from red blood cells, and initiation of immune responses by B cells and T cells in response to antigens circulating blood
What are the structures of the spleen? attached to stomach, connects diaphragm and left kidney, red pulp and white pulp
Where do the splenic vein, arteries, and lymphatic vessels communicate with the spleen at> hilus
what is the red pulp contains many RBC's and free and fixed macrophages
What is white pulp? resembles lymphoid nodules
What do phagocytes and other lymphocytes in the spleen do? identify and attack damaged and infected cells in circulating blood
What is involved in lymphopoiesis? periperal lymphoid tissues, bone marrow, and thymus
Where are lymphoid stem cells found? in bone marrow, hemocytoblasts divide into 2 types of lymphoid stem cells
What do the lymphoid stem cells do in the bone marrow? produce B cells and NK cells.
Where do the B cells go to? lymph nodes, spleen and other tissues
Where do the NK cells go to? migrate throughout the body
What do the lymphoid stem cells do in the thymus? produce T cells in environment isolated by blood-thymus barrier via thymic hormones
What are nonspecific defenses always wok the same way, against any type of invading agent, operates with specific defenses to provide resistance to infection and disease
What are nonspecific resistance? physical barriers, phagocytic cells, immunological surveillance, interferons, complement, inflammation, fever
What are the body's physical barriers? skin hair sweat glands mucus and urine
What do phagocytes do? first line of cellular defense
What are the 2 types of macrophages? free and fixed macrophages
what are free macro phages? mobile and travel throughout the body through tissue and blood
What are fixed microphages? also called histiocytes. stay in specific tissues or organs
where are the microglia found? CNS
where are the kupffer cells found? liver sinusoids
what are the microphages? neutrophils and eosinophils
What are the macrophages? large phagocytic cells derived from monocytes. first line of defense.
free macrophages and microphages share what three functional characteristics? Emigration, chemotaxis, and adhesion
what is emigration? move through capillary walls
what is chemtaxis? attracted or repelled by chemicals in surrounding fluids
What is adhesion phagocytosis begins when phagocyte attaches to target
What is immunological surveillance? constantly monitors normal tissue
NK cell activation? identifies and attaches to abnormal cells. golgi apparatus in NK cells forms perforin vesicles releases that perforin and perforin lyses abnormal cells
What are interferons? cytokines are proteins released by activated lymphocytes, macrophages, and tissue cells infected virally
how does complement activation work? works together in cascades. two pathways activate the complement system
What is the classical pathway? fast method, C1 binds to antibody molecule attached to antigen, bound protein acts as enzyme and catalyzes a chain reaction
What is the alternative pathway? slow method, exposed to antigen -factor P, factor B and factor D interact in plasma
What do both pathways end with? conversion of inactive complement protein (C3) to active form (C3b)
What are the effects of complement activation? stimulation of inflammation, attraction of phagocytes, enhancement of phagocytosis by opsonization, and destruction of target cell membranes
What are the 3 effects of inflammation? temporary repair and barrier against pathogens, retards spread of pathogens, mobilization of local and systemic defenses
What are pyrogens? any material that causes the hypothalamus to raise the body temp
what are specific defenses? T cells and B cells
What are the forms of immunity? innate and aquired
what is innate immunity? present at birth
What is acquired immunity? after birth, need exposure to antigen
What is acquired active immunity? antibodies develop after exposure to antigen and result of immune response
What is passive acquired immunity? antibodies are transferred from another source
what is naturally acquired active immunity??\ through environmental exposure to pathogens
What is induced active immunity? stimulate under controlled conditions, through vaccine containing pathogen, vaccines contain dead inactive or antigen from pathogen
What is naturally acquried passive immunity? antibodies acquired from mother, before birth- cross placental barrier, after birth- breast milk
what is induced passive immunity? by an injection of antibodies
what is specificity? each T cell and B cell respond only to a specific antigen and ignores all others
what is versatility? T cells and B cells differentiate into 100's of receptor combinations, each fights a different type of antigens
what is memory? stay in circulation, provide immunity against new exposure
What is tolerance? immune system ignores "normal antigens"
What are B cells? differentiate into plasma cells and produce and secrete antibodies
How many circulating lymphocytes are there? 10-15%
NK cells? 5-10% of circulating lymphocytes
What are NK cells responsible for? immunological surveillance
what do NK cells attack? foreign bodies, virus infected cells, cancer cells
T cells? 80% of circulating lymphocytes
What are the 3 types of T cells? Cytotoxic T cells, Helper T cells, Suppressor T cells, Memory T cells
What are cytotoxic T cells? attack cells infected by virus, produce cell-mediated immunity
What are helper T cells? stimulate function of T and B cells, AIDS reduces this population
What are suppressor T cells? inhibit function of T and B Cells
What is antigen presentation? t cells must be activated by exposure to antigen, tcells patrol body and look for markers or flags on cells that are unusual, tcells only recognize antigens that are bound to glycoproteins in cell membrane, glycoprotein structure is unique to each person
What are antigen-presenting cells (APC's)? responsible for activating T cells against foreign cells and proteins
What are phagocytic APC's? free and fixed macrophages (including Kupffer cells of the liver and Microglia in the CNS)
What are pinocytotic APC's? langerhans cells in the skin and dendritic cells in lymph nodes and spleen
What are cytotoxic T cells? killer t cells, seek out and immediately destroy target cells, release perforin, secrete poisonous lymphotoxin, and activates apoptosis
What are suppressor T cells? secrete suppression factors, inhibit responses of t and b cells after initial immune response, limit immune reaction to single stimulus
What are helper T cells? divide into active t cells and memory t cells, stimulate function of t and b cells
What are 4 functions of cytokines? stimulate t cell divisions, attract and stimulate macrophages, attract and stimulate NK cells, promote activation of B cells
What do B cells do? attack antigens by producing specific antibodies
What is B cell sensitization? antigen is taken into B cell, processed, then reappear on surface, bound to class II MHC protein so that helper T cell promotes B cell activation and division
what do B cells divide into? plasma cells and memory B cells
what are 7 functions of antigen-antibody complexes? neutralization of antigen binding sites, precipitation and agglutination, activation of complement, attraction of phagocytes, opsonization, stimulation of inflammation, prevention of bacterial and viral adhesion
What is the primary response? first time exposed to antigen
What is the secondary response? second time exposed to antigen
What is the autoimmune disorder? a malfunction of system that recognizes and ignores "normal" antigens
wHat are allergies? inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens
what can stress do to the immune response? depress the inflammatory response, reduce abundance and activity of phagocytes, inhibit interleukin secretion
What happens to the immune response as we age? thymic hormone production is reduced, T cells become less responsive, fewer T cells reduce responsiveness of B cells, Immune surveillance against tumor cells declines
Created by: 588478519



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