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generally along the long axis of the bone. Bending force along with compression force. (Incomplete fracture) green stick fracture
simple break, clean across, perpendicular force exertion to the long axis of the bone. (Complete fractures) transverse fracture
break at an angle across bone, runs diagonally across the diaphysis, resulting from angulation and compression force. (Complete fractures) oblique fracture
high level forces generate two or more fragments, can shorten length of the bone because of crushing effect (Complete fracture) Butterfly and segmintal are types of this facture comminuted fracture
More common in children. Fracture with exaggerated curvature along length of the bone. (Incomplete fracture) Bow Fracture
fracture resulting from compression forces. Bone thus buckles.(Incomplete Fracture) Torus or buckle fracture
a ‘caving in’ of the bone. Usually in the skull. (Incomplete Fracture) Depressed Fracture
circles the shaft, from rotational forces. (Complete Fracture) Spiral Fracture
growth plate fracture to cartilage and surrounding bone. (Complete Fracture) Epiphyseal Fracture
trauma that occurs prior to death Antemortem Trauma
trauma that occurs during or close to death Perimortem Trauma
really called postmortem alteration, as it no longer disrupts living tissue Postmortem Trauma
a defect that is present at birth. Arises during gestation or due to heredity. Congenital Variation
an opening or split in the roof of the mouth that occurs when the tissue doesn't fuse together during development in the womb (Congential Variation) Cleft lip and Cleft palate
a group of disorders that affect movement and muscle tone or posture (Congential Variation Cerebral Palsy
a birth defect that occurs when the spine and spinal cord don't form properly (Congential Variation Spina Bifida
Curvature of the spine, often due to unknown causes (Congential Variation) Scoliosis
Degenerative joint disease - Osteoarthritis (OA), Generally associated with use and afflicts spine & joints, Most common in knees, hands, hips, and spine Degenerative Variation
disease of infancy and childhood characterized by softening of the bones, caused by a lack of vitamin D. (Disease Process Variation) Rickets
infection of bone tissue, results in destruction of cancellous bone (Disease Process Variation) Osteomyelitis
common bone cancer, primarily affecting the long bones, particularly those in the knee, hip, or shoulder regions (Disease Process Variation) Osteosarcoma
disease characterized by the thinning of bones due often to poor nutrition (Disease Process Variation) Osteoporosis
a rare condition characterized by overgrowth of the bones, skin, and other tissues (Disease Process Variation) Proteus Syndrome
a bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact (Disease Process Variation) Syphilis
Porotic hypertosis that is visible within the orbits (poor nutrition) Cribra orbitalia
Animals break apart body/skeleton and chew on bones leaving teeth marks and broken bones (Post Mortem Trauma) Scavenging
Most common with prehistoric water burials (Post Mortem Trauma) Crushing
Generally difficult to analyze due to limited number of any morphological features due to lack of bone presence, Cremation is done for funerary practices or performed to hide a criminal act,In most fire cases, remains of bone can usually be located. Cremains – Cremated Remains
Normal anatomical variation Skeletal anomalies Pathological conditions Skeletal changes related to repetitive activity Individual Skeletal Variation
so that in vivo processes are not confused with trauma or taphonomic alterations. Why is recognizing morphological variation important
The range of morphological expression in individual skeletons -Genetic Coding Normal Variation
Shape of the sinuses, Cranial suture patterns Trabecular bone pattern External bone contours The parts of the skeleton that shows significant differences between people and are used for personal identification.
Characteristics or traits that are considered to be deviations from the norm, May not be unique or rare -Products of mutations, maternal condition or nutritional disorders Anomalies
Caused by disease processes -Infection, injury, or a disorder. Lesions: Proliferative, Lytic, and Deformative Pathological Condition
Mostly Pathologic changes in the overall bone contour or shape. -Can be from intentional cultural practices (head and foot binding) -Maybe most common cause is lack of vitamin D, causing one form of osteomalacia Deformative Lesions
Skeletal muscles have multiple attachment sites known as the origin (point of attachment to a stationary bone), insertion(point of attachment to a moving bone). Entheses.
-Some immediate elements that humans do not have are tails, claws, horns/antlers, bcula, or metpodials -Whole or partial skulls are usually easy to differentiate -Post-cranial material is more difficult. Non-human Comparison
Coracoid process, elbow, ulna/radius to wrist (carpals) head of femur, knee area fibula/tibia to ankle (tarsals) Epiphyseal union locations
Ostemetric board Measurmentment tool for long bones
Evidence of the bone healing antemortem
-Brittle Bone disease - general name for a group of conditions which all result in pathological osteoporosis and abnormal fragility of the skeleton Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)
Causing extremely short limbs (Developmental Variation) Thanatophoric dysplasia
-causing short arms, and legs, -short, broad hands and feet. (Developmental Variation) Hypochondroplasia
-causing bowed long bones in legs and arms, -often fatal for newborns. (Developmental Variation) Campomelic dysplasia
Polydactyl bones- extra finger or toes Cranial suture bone (extrasutural bones - Inca bone Sesamoid bones - bones that are located within tendons that pass over joints. Common Accessory Bone
are excess deposition of bone Proliferative Lesions (Osteoproliferative)
loss of bone Lytic Lesions (Osteolytic)
change in the overall bone shape Deformative lesions
Created by: mathgirl7



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