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Cancers:M/F Genitals

First Aid Ovarian and Testicular Cancers

QuestionAnswer
Follicular cyst Distention of unruptured graafian follicle. May be associated with hyperestrinism and endometial hyperplasia
Corpus luteum cyst Hemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum. Menstrual irregularity
Theca-lutein cyst Often bilateral/multiple. Due to gonadotropin stimulation. Associated with choriocarcinoma and moles.
Chocolate cyst Blood-containing cyst from ovarian endometriosis. Varies with menstrual cycle.
(Ovarian) Dysgerminoma Germ cell tumor. Malignant, equivalent to male seminoma. Sheets of uniform cells. Most common malignant ovarian tumor. Elevated hCG, elevated serum LDH.
(Ovarian) Choriocarcinoma Germ cell tumor. Rare but malignant, can develop during pregnancy in mother or baby. Large, hyperchromatic syncytiotrophoblastic cells. Increased frequency of theca-lutein cysts. Hyatidiform mole is a precurser for this. Elevated hCG.
(Ovarian) Yolk sac (endodermal sinus tumor) Germ cell tumor. Aggressive malignancy in ovaries (testes in boys) and sacrococcygeal area of young children. Schiller-Duval bodies (resembles yolk sac). Elevated AFP.
(Ovarian) Teratoma Germ cell tumor. 90% of ovarian germ cell tumors. Contain cells from 2 or 3 germ layers. Mature teratoma (‘dermoid cyst’) – most frequent benign ovarian tumor. Immature teratoma – aggresively malignant.
Struma ovarii Contains functional thyroid tissue. Can present as hyperthyroidism. Associated with teratoma’s.
(Ovarian) Serous cystadenoma Non-Germ cell tumor. 20% of ovarian tumors. Frequently bilateral, lined with fallopian tube-like epithelium. Benign.
Serous cystadenocarcinoma Non-Germ cell tumor. 50% ovarian tumors, malignant and frequently bilateral.
(Ovarian) Mucinous cystadenoma Non-Germ cell tumor. Multilocular cyst lined by mucus-secreting epithelium. Benign.
(Ovarian) Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma Non-Germ cell tumor. Malignant. Pseudomyxoma peritonei (abdominal mass of mucus).
(Ovarian) Brenner tumor Non-Germ cell tumor. Benign. Looks like Bladder.
(Ovarian) Fibroma Non-Germ cell tumor. Bundles of spindle-shaped fibroblasts.
Meigs’ syndrome Triad of ovarian fibroma, ascites, and hydrothorax. Pulling sensation in groin. Associated with Ovarian fibroma’s.
(Ovarian) Granulosa cell tumor Non-Germ cell tumor. Secretes estrogen leading to precocious puberty (kids). Can cause endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma in adults.
Call-Exner bodies Small follicles filled with eosinophilic secretions. Associated with Granulosa cell tumors.
(Ovarian) Krukenberg tumor Non-Germ cell tumor. GI malignancy that metastasizes to ovaries, causing a mucin-secreting signet cell adenocarcinoma.
(Vaginal) squamous cell carcinoma Secondary to cervical SCC.
(Vaginal) clear cell adenocarcinoma Exposure to DES (Diethylstilbestrol; used to be given to pregnant women to prevent miscarriages; now its known to cause vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma in young girls).
(Vaginal) sarcoma botryoides (rhabdomyosarcoma variant) Affects girls <4 yrs of age; spindle shaped tumor cells that are desmin positive.
CA-125 General ovarian cancer marker
CA-19-9 Colorectal and pancreatic cancer marker.
CEA Colorectal and pancreatic cancer marker. (Used to monitor colon cancer tumor recurrance)
Alpha FetoProtein Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (i.e. Yolk sac tumors).
DHEA Excess production of androgens (i.e. Adrenal Hyperplasia)
(Breast) Fibroadenoma Most common tumor <25 y/o. Small, mobile, firm mass with sharp edges. Increase size and tenderness w/pregnancy. Not a precursor to breast cancer.
(Breast) Intraductal Papilloma Tumor of lactiferous ducts; presents with serous or bloody nipple discharge.
(Breast) Phyllodes tumor Large, bulky mass of connective tissue and cysts. Tumor may have ‘leaflike’ projections. Some may be malignant (cystosarcoma phyllodes). >50 y/o, no cyclical (menstrual) pain.
(Breast) Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) Noninvasive, early malignancy without basement membrane penetration.
(Breast) Invasive ductal, no specific type Invasive. 76% of the invasive breast cancers. Frim, fibrous mass, FOLLOWS LYMPHATICS! Worst and most invasive; common.
(Breast) Invasive lobular 8% of invasive breast cancers. Often multiple; BILATERAL, orderly rows of cells.
(Breast) Medullary 1.2 – 10% of invasive breast cancers. Fleshy, cellular, lymphocytic infiltrate. Good prognosis.
(Breast) Comedocarcinoma 1.6% of invasive breast cancers. Ductal, caseous necrosis.
(Breast) Inflammatory Invasive. Lymphatic involvement. Red, swollen, peau d’orange (breast skin resembles orange peel).
(Breast) Paget’s disease of the breast Eczematous patches on nipple. Paget cells- Large cells with clear halo; suggests underlying carcinoma. Also seen on vulva.
(Testicular) Seminoma Germ cell tumor. Malignant, painless testicular enlargement; most common testicular tumor, mostly affecting males age 15-35. Large cells in lobules with watery cytoplasm and a ‘fried egg’ appearance. Radiosensitive. Late metastasis, excellent prognosis
(Testicular) Embyonal carcinoma Germ cell tumor. Malignant, PAINFUL, worse prognosis than seminoma. Often glandular/papillary morphology. Can differentiate to other tumors.
(Testicular) Yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor Germ cell tumor. Analogous to ovarian yolk sac tumor. Schiller-Duval bodies, primitive glomeruli. Increased AFP.
(Testicular) Choriocarcinoma Germ cell tumor. Malignant. Increased hCG
(Testicular) Teratoma Germ cell tumor. Unlike in females, mature teratoma in males is most often malignant.
Leydig cell tumor Non-germ cell tumor. Benign, contains Reinke crystals; usually androgen producing, gynecomastia in men, precocious puberty in boys.
Sertoli cell tumor Non-germ cell tumor. Benign, androblastoma from sex cord stroma.
Testicular lymphoma Non-germ cell tumor. Most common testicular cancer in older men.
Varicocele Tunica Vaginalis lesion. Dilated vein in pampiniform plexus; can cause infertility; ‘bag of worms’. Warm, soft mass in scrotum. Pain on exercise, relieved when lying down or with valsalva maneuver.
Hydrocele Tunica Vaginalis lesion. Increased fluid secondary to incomplete fusion of processus vaginalis.
Spermatocele Tunica Vaginalis lesion. Dilated epidydymal duct.
Erythroplasia of Queyrat Penile pathology- Carcinoma in situ. Red velvety plaques, usually involving the glans; otherwise similar to Bowen’s disease.
Bowenoid papulosis Penile pathology- Carcinoma in situ. Multiple papular lesions; affects younger age group than other subtypes; usually does not become invasive.
Bowen’s Disease Penile pathology- Carcinoma in situ. Gray, solitary, crusty plaque, usually on the shaft of the penis or on the scrotum; peak incidence in 5th decade of life; progresses to invasive SCC in <10% of cases.
Penile Squamous cell carcinoma Penile pathology. Rare in circumsised men; uncommmon in the USA and Europe, more common in Asia, Africa, and South America. Commonly associated with HPV.
Peyronie’s Disease Penile pathology. Bent penis due to acquired fibrous tissue formation.
Created by: pabrams777