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Science 7 Unit 3

Living Systems

The basic unit of life in any living organism is the _____________. All the living parts of your body are made of them. cells
_____________ carry electrical messages to and from different parts of the body. Nerve cells
____________ contract and relax to help the body move. Muscle cells
____________ store minerals and, by producing and supporting bone, provide form, shape, and protection to the body Bone cells
How does a cell “know” to become a muscle cell, or a nerve cell, or some other kind of cell? When each cell develops, it follows instructions in its DNA. These instructions determine what job each cell will do.
_________________ are groups of cells that perform the same function. Tissues
Tissues that work together to perform the same function are grouped together as an ____________. organ
Name three of your most important organs. brain, heart, and lungs
Your ___________ is made of cardiac muscle tissue, which is made of cardiac muscle cells. heart
Your __________ is made of nervous tissue, which is made of nerve cells. brain
___________ that perform a similar or related function are grouped together into a particular system. Organs
Every day, your ___________ system moves nutrients through your body. circulatory
Your ___________ system brings in oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. respiratory
Your ___________ system supports your body. skeletal
Your ___________ system helps you move. muscular
Your ___________ system coordinates all the systems. nervous
For many animals, _________________________ work together to maintain the animal’s form and let the animal move. the skeletal and muscular systems
An animal’s body is like a house in which the ___________ provides the frame and structural support. skeleton
The ___________ keeps the animal from collapsing under the force of gravity. It helps hold the animal's shape, and its rigid bones can be moved to change the animal’s location or help it get food. skeleton
Although the ___________ is not part of the muscular or skeletal systems, it helps maintain the shape of an animal. This outer covering wraps around and protects the skeleton, muscles, and other organs. skin
For many animals—mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and most fish—the skeleton forms ___________ the body. inside
The larger the animal, the ___________ the bones must be to support the animal’s weight. thicker
Animals with ___________ have skeletons on the outside of their body instead of inside. exoskeletons
The exoskeleton also protects the body, performing the function of both _____________. skin and bones
How do earthworms move? They use their muscles to change the shape of one part of their body, and the pressure of their internal fluids causes another part to change shape. This is how worms are able to crawl around without bones.
How do plants and trees maintain their form? Plants have an internal framework of stiff tubes similar to skeletons.
Instead of being made of bone, the tubes in plants are made of a rigid substance called ___________ that provides support. cellulose
The place where two bones meet is called a ___________. joint
Ligaments and cartilage help attach bones together at ___________. joints
___________ are tough bands of tissue that attach bone to bone. Ligaments
___________ is tissue that is tough, smooth, and flexible. It covers the ends of many bones to help joints move smoothly. Cartilage
The kind of muscle that attaches to bones is called ___________ muscle. It is also called ___________ muscle because you control its movement. skeletal; voluntary
What are the two types of involuntary muscles? cardiac and smooth
___________ muscle is found only in the walls of the heart, and it beats rhythmically from before birth until death. Cardiac
___________ muscle is found in the walls of many organs and blood vessels, and it contracts to move substances like blood, food or waste through the body. Smooth
When a muscle contracts, a rope-like band of tissue called a ___________ pulls on the bone it is connected to. tendon
Which of the following three help an organism keep its shape? nerve tissue, heart, or skin skin
What feature do plants have that provide structure and form? Plants have ridged tubes made of cellulose.
How is a tendon different from a ligament? A tendon joins a muscle to a bone, a ligament joins a bone to a bone.
Humans have bones and muscles that help us move. What structure protects insects and gives them structure? exoskeleton
All animals, including you, have a respiratory system to bring in ____________ and remove ___________. oxygen (O2); carbon dioxide (CO2)
Do plants have a respiratory system? yes
The cells in most organisms can only survive for a few minutes without fresh ___________. oxygen
The ___________system brings oxygen into organisms. respiratory
All reptiles, all mammals (including humans), and some amphibians use ___________ to breathe. lungs
Some animals use ___________ for breathing, and some absorb O2 directly through their ___________. gills; skin
How do plants breathe? Through the surfaces of their leaves, roots, and stems.
When you inhale, a muscle in your chest called the ___________ moves downward. diaphragm
When the diaphragm moves down it increases the amount of space within your chest, so your lungs are forced to ___________. expand
As your lungs expand, a ___________ is created, pulling air in from outside. vacuum
Air comes in through your nose and mouth, moves down through the ___________ to the ____________, and then moves into the two bronchi. pharynx;;windpipe (also called the trachea); bronchi
The __________ are tubes through which air enters the lungs. bronchi
The bronchi branch into smaller bronchioles, which eventually lead to many tiny air sacs called ___________. alveoli
Each one of the alveoli is a tiny sac where ___________from inhaled air passes out into the bloodstream. oxygen (O2)
The wall of each of the alveoli is the thickness of ___________. one cell
Wrapped around the alveoli are tiny blood vessels called ___________. capillaries
Molecules of ___________ pass through the wall of the alveoli and enter the bloodstream through the capillaries. oxygen (O2)
When you exhale, ____________ passes from your blood through the walls of the alveoli and into the alveolar sacs carbon dioxide (CO2)
Why are lungs located deep inside the body? To help keep them moist.
Why can gills be located near the outside of the body? Gills are used in the water, so they are constantly moist.
As water flows through the gills, ___________ is taken up by capillaries and ____________ is removed. oxygen (O2); carbon dioxide (CO2)
Amphibians like frogs, whose body tissues are in contact with water or other fluids containing O2 part of the time, can also exchange gases through their ___________. skin
Name two organisms that get all of their oxygen through their skin. flatworms and jellyfish
Insects exchange O2 and CO2 using a system of tubes called ___________, which are located in their abdomens. tracheae
Plants absorb CO2 so that they can perform photosynthesis, but what other gas do they absorb and what is it used for? oxygen (O2); cellular respiration
The ____________ in your circulatory system transports nutrients and waste products in the blood to and from all parts of your body. blood
The ____________ system is the material transport system of an organism. circulatory
What are the three main components of the circulatory system? heart, blood vessels, and blood
___________ form a system of channels or tubes through which the fluid blood travels. Blood vessels
____________ carries the materials the body needs to function. Blood
The _____________ is a pump that moves the blood through vessels. heart
Hearts and vessels often contain _____________ to control the direction of the blood’s flow. valves
Many invertebrates, including insects, spiders, crustaceans, snails, and clams, have an ____________ circulatory system. open
In an ___________________, the cells are in constant contact with a bloodlike fluid that bathes them in nutrients and carries wastes away. open circulatory system
One animal with an open circulatory system is the ____________. grasshopper
In the _____________, a simple system of vessels pumps the bloodlike fluid so it can easily bring nutrients to cells and carry waste products away from the cells. grasshopper
Open circulatory systems are efficient transport systems for _______________________. smaller, less active animals
As the size of an animal increases, blood _______________________. has farther to travel
For large animals, a ___________________ is more effective than a ___________________. closed circulatory system; open circulatory system.
Earthworms, the more active mollusks (like squid and octopuses), and all vertebrates have a ________________ system. closed circulatory
What are the three types of blood vessels? arteries, veins, and capillaries
Blood leaves the heart through _____________. arteries
The smallest arteries connect to blood vessels whose walls are only one cell wide. These tiny blood vessels, _____________, deliver blood to individual cells throughout the body. the capillaries
___________ transported by the circulatory system move across the thin walls of capillaries to the fluid surrounding cells. Nutrients
The metabolic ___________ of the cell pass through the cell membrane, into the surrounding fluid, and into the capillaries. wastes
The capillaries lead to ___________, the blood vessels that remove metabolic wastes from the cells of the body. veins
Heart chambers that pump blood out to arteries are called _____________. ventricles
Heart chambers that receive blood coming back from veins are called _____________________. atria (singular, atrium).
In fish, for example, blood circulates through the body in ___________loop. It travels from the heart, past the gills, to the rest of the body, and back to the heart. one
In land vertebrates, including humans, the circulatory system has _________ loops. two
The ___________________ sends blood to the lungs and back to the heart. pulmonary circuit
The _____________________carry blood to the lungs, where carbon dioxide moves out of the blood and oxygen moves into the blood. pulmonary arteries
The _____________________ return oxygenated blood to the heart in preparation for being pumped to the rest of the body by the systemic circuit. pulmonary veins
The _______________________ is how the cells in the rest of the body receive oxygen and nutrients and get rid of wastes. systemic circuit
The heart pumps blood through the _______________________ to the capillaries for cellular nutrient and waste exchange. systemic arteries
Then the blood flows through the ______________________ back to the heart. systemic veins
The circulatory system not only delivers nutrients and oxygen to cells, it _______________________ too removes wastes
Waste products move from the cell into the fluid surrounding the cell. Then waste materials pass into the ____________. capillaries
Blood in the capillaries carries wastes through the _________ and back to the heart. veins
The blood that returns to the heart from the body is low in ___________ and high in ____________ and other wastes. oxygen; carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is removed in the _____________________of the circulatory system. pulmonary circuit
Blood moves from the heart to the ___________, where the blood releases the carbon dioxide and obtains oxygen. lungs
Wastes other than carbon dioxide are filtered out of the blood by the __________ in the excretory system. kidneys
Do plants have a circulatory system for transporting nutrients to and from cells? Yes, they do. Plants have a series of tubes within their stems, stalks, or trunks that carry water and nutrients from the roots to each leaf of the plant and carry sugars back down to the roots.
lung capillaries to pulmonary veins to left atrium to left ventricle to the aorta to arteries to capillaries to veins to vena cava to right atrium to left ventricle to pulmonary arteries
Created by: Smdebusk