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GI disturbances

patho

QuestionAnswer
cranial nerves V, IX, X, and XII control what? swallowing
painful swallowing odynophagia
disruption of the nerves or narrowing of the esophagus can be caused by what? stroke strictures or tumors
inflammation of the oral mucosa stomatitis
bacterial, viral, trauma, irritants, meds, nutritional def., systemic inflammatory disease( measles and syphillis) , and hiv can all be causes of what? stomatitis
cold sores are also known as? Acute Hepatic Stomatitis
tingling feeling, also the best time to treat cold sores Prodromal period
treatment for cold sores include? antivirals and topical corticosteriods
lower esophagus sphincter(LES) fails to relax, difficulty passing food, and esophagus enlarges above the LES Achalasia
people with achalasia are at risk for? aspiration
treatment for achalasia includes? ST, dietary changes, and surgery
outpouching of the esophageal wall is known as? Esophageal Diverticulum
caused by weakness of the muscle layers, also retains food s/s are gurgling, belching, foul smelling breath and may lead to esophagitus or ulceration/ tx is surgery Esophageal Diverticulum
backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus is also known as heartburn
usually do to a weak LES
prolonged gastric incubation, infection, systemic diseases, SLE, ingestion of corrosive substances, acidic food, obesity, smoking, high fat diet, hernia, pregnancy, gastroporesis, stress and alchohol are all risk factors for? GERD
stomach contents cause irritation which can lead to strictures, bleeding, asthma, laryngitis, and cancer GERD
common in children, can be associated with CP, down's syndrome and other developmental pxs GERD
repetitive gagging, regurgitation, mouthing, and swallowing of regugitated material is known as? Rumination
dyspepsia(burning, epigastric pain), belching, pain after eathing and when lying down, increased salivation, and flatulence are all signs and symptoms of? GERD
dx for ___ is H and P, Ph tests, and barium swallow TX is antacids, H2 receptor blockers, proton pump inhibitors, and small frequent meals GERD
portion of the stomach passes through the diaphragm hiatal hernia
___ ____ ____ can cause haital hernia or make it worse increased inarthorasic pressure
s/s- heartburn chest pain, dysphagia, visualization of protrusion TX includes surgery and antiflux meds Hiatal Hernia
6 percent of all GI cancers esophagus cancers
more common in men older than 50 esophagus cancer
2 types of esophageal cancer? squamos and adenocarcinoma
usually dietary and environmental causes (alchohol and tobacco) Squamos esophageal cancer
may encircle the esophagus adenocarcinoma esophageal cancer
poor prognosis and short survival time s/s include dysphagia, indigestion, wt loss, anorexia, odynophagia, pulmonary complications (obstruction, aspiration) DX- CT, MRI, endoscopy TX- surgery, chemo, radiation esophagus cancer
inflammation of the gastric mucosa (gastric mucosal barrier protects the stomach from the acid contents ASA and alchohol can impair this barrier) Gastritis
transient onflammation of the gastric mucosa acute gastritis
causes- local irritants( bacteria, caffiene, alchohol, ASA) may have edema, hyperernia, hemoraghic erosion at site, self limiting, bacterial has an abrupt onset and is usually contracted from food s/s include heartburn, NV (hematernesia) acute gastriits
charecterized by the absence of grossly visible erosions and the presence of chronic inflammatory changes leading to atrophy of the stomach lining, can change into cancer chronic gastritis
contibuting factors- chronic alchohol abuse, smoking, and chronic NSAID use chronic gastritis
4 types of gastritis autoimmune, multifocal atrophic, H. pylori, and chemical gastrophy
least common, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Addison's disease autoimmune gastritis
unknown etiology, common in Europe and latin america, associated with decreased acid secretion multifocal atrophic gastritis
most common, small curved, gram- rods, produces an enzyme that degrades the mucosal lining, can lead to a peptic ulcer and cancer H. Pylori gastritis
result of reflux of alkaline duodenal contents, pancreatic secretions, and bile, commonly seen in pts with gastroduodenostomy or gastrojejunostomy surgery chemical gastropathy
risk factors- chronic diseases such as COPD< RA< or cirrhosis, stress, smoking, chronic NSAID use, H. pylori infections(most common) Peptic ulcer disease
and ulcer which may be located in the lower end of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum. more common in men. mortality increases with age. may be superficial or deep. can penetrate to the muscle and blood vessels Peptic ulcer disease
_____ ____ can lead to a break or ulceration in the mucosa to be subjected to an acid or alkaline environment and thus autodigestion occurs excess acid
____ ______ _____can leave the mucosal cells unprotected from the acid, hypoxia, shock, burns, etc... can lead to the injury of mucus producing cells decreased mucus production
_____ ______ _______ ______ can cause the protective musus layer to be irritated bc of the rapid movement of stomach contents, such as in dumping syndromes Increased delivery of acids
the injured tissue is replaced w/ scar tissue which contributes to reoccurrence. s/s-abd discomfort and pain (burning gnawing cramping usually rhythmic, occurs usually when the stomach is empty, relieved w foods or antacids) Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
complications of ____ include hemorrage, obstruction, and perforation. DX- H and P , hemacult stool, H. pylori, CBC, BS, CT, endoscopy TX- H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors, mucosal barrier drug, antacids, antibiotics, dietary changes, and surgery Peptic ulcer disease
rare, caused by gastrin secreting tumor (gastrinoma) Ulcerations, may be located in the pancreas stomach or duodenum Zollinger- Ellison syndrome
most are malignant and many have metastisized at the time of diagnoses s/s are same as PUD, diarrhea Zollinger- Ellison syndrome
stress ulcer is also known as? Curling's ulcer
occurs at some sort of major physiological stress (large burns, trauma, sepsis, ARDS, liver failure, major surgery) due to ischemia, tissue acidosis, and biles salts entering the stomach, decreased GI motility Stress ulcer
ulcer arising form prs with intracranial injury, operations, or tumors Cushing ulcer
increased gastric acid due to vagal stimulation from intracranial pressure, often perforate, common in the ICU, prevention is best way to tx Cushing ulcer
7th most common cause of cancer deaths. more common outside of the U.S. risk factors include genetic predisposition, carcinogenic factors(smoked and preserved foods) autoimmune gastritis, gastric adenomas or polyps stomach cancer
most commonly occur in the pyloric region, s/s often asymptomatic, anorexia, weight loss, gastric discomfort, weakness, pain. DX- BS, endoscopy with biopsy and cytology, CT. TX- surgery, chemo and radiation for prevention of progression stomach cancer
chronic disorder with reccurent intestinal symptoms not explained by structural or bichemiacal abnormalities, common especially in women, s/s persistent and recurrent abd pain that is relieved by defecation and associated eith a change in consistency irritable bowel syndrome
more s/s altered bowel function, flatulence, bloatedness, nausea, anorexia, anxiety, and depression. cause- dysfunction of intestinal motor and sensory functions in the CNS irritable bowel syndrome
DX- H and P TX- stress management, adequate fiber, antispasmadics, anticholinergics irritable bowel syndrome
blanket term, common, inflammation of the bowel, all have a causative agent-dietary antigen, microbial, familialtendencies- may be autoimmune inflammatory bowel disease
lesions are local and involve all layers of the wall- skip lesions, the wall contains shallow long ulcers with strictures, wall becomes congested, thickened and may abscess Crohn's disease
chronic inflammation of the bowel in which there are patchy areas of inflammation anywhere in the GI tract, most common in the ileum or colon, higher incidence in young adults and teenagers Crohn's disease
more common in jewish and caucasian race, develops slowly, causes are multifactoral involving and infection, allergy or immune disorder, psychosomatic, dietary. hormonal. and environmental factors Crohn's disease
fistulas may develop b/t the intestines to the bladder and other structures leading to MALABSORPTION, scar tissue may lead to perforation or obstruction Crohn's disease
chronic diarrhea leads to F and E disturbances and malabsorption s/s N/V/D( 3-5 foul smelling stools a day) flatulence, malaise, wt loss, anorexia, abd pain, may have mucus or blood in the stool, nutriitional def, perianal abscesses and fistulas Crohn's disease
Dx- H and P, CBC, barium enema, chemistry, sigmoidoscopy, CT.... TX low residue, high fat, high protien, high calorie diet, corticosteriods, azulfidine, analgesics, vitamins, surgery Crohn's diease
inflammatory disease affecting the mucous membranes of the colon ulcerative colitis
most often begins in the early twenties, most common in the caucasian and jewish races, unknown etiology- may be genetic, virus, bacteria, autoimmune and stress, ulcerated lesions form small erosions- no skip lesions ulcerative colitis
the erosive cavities may feature small hemorrhages and abscesses, the bowel wall thickens and the ulcerations are fibrotic in the later stages-pseudopolyps ulcerative colitis
complications- obstruction, dehydration, F and E imbalances, malabsorption, iron def. s/s- chronic bloody diarrhea mixed with mucus , fever, wt loss, abd pain, N/V urege to defecate ulcerative colitis
Dx- CBC, chemistry, prostosigmoidoscopy, hemacult stools TX- azulfidine, corticosteriods, flagyl. antidiarrheals, antispasmodics, and surgery ulceratice colitis
part of normal flora, Gram+ spore forming bacillus, spores are resistant to acid and convert to vegetative forms in the colon clostridium difficile
use of broad spectrum ABT increases risk due to destruction of normal flora, releases toxins that cause mucosal damage and inflammation, s/s- diarrhea, abd cramping, usually resolves after ABT is discontinued clostridium difficile
may lead to a pseudomembrane formation which is life threatening... s/s- lethargy, fever, tachycardia, abd pain, distention, and dehydration, may lose muscle tone, may lead to perforation clostridium difficile
DX- hx of ABT lab + C diff in the stool TX- stop ABT, anti diarrheal clostridium difficile
Found in feces, contaminated milk, poultry, pork and lamb: food transfers to non-meat products, food born transition, can be detrimental in old age Escherichia coli (E. coli)
prevention- well done meat and handwashing s/s- acute, non-bloody watery diarrhea 10-12 day for 3-7 days, abd cramping E.coli
may lead to hemmorhagic colitis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura, toxemia TX- Maintain hydration E. coli
an outpouching of the walls of the colon Diverticular disease
inflammation of the diverticulum Diverticulitis
the condition of having diverticula w/o any inflammation or symptoms diverticulosis
common over 60, acute- similar to appendicitis, chronic- severe constipation, pain, ditention, and flatulence, Causes- severe constipation, obesity, lack of dietary fiber DIverticular disease
bacteria from food become trapped in the outpouches, may cause and obstruction, perforation, or peritonitis diverticular disease
s/s- constipation, lower left side abd pain, occasional rectal bleeding occasional diarrhea, elevated WBC, or may be asymptomatic DX- US, sigmoidoscopy, barium enema, CT TX-antidiarrheal, antispasmadics, laxatives diverticular disease
inflammation of the veriform appendix appendicitis
occurs often in children and young adults, more often in males, cause- unknown, obstruction from stool, or necrosis... sudden onset, may be gangrene or rupture appendicitis
obstruction leads to the inflammation and bacterial invasion, necrosis of the capillaries follows d/t the pressure.. with gangrene and rupture peritonitis is a major concern appendicitis
s/s RLQ pain rebound tenderness, anorexia, N/V/D, occasionally constipation, posturing by lying on side or back w/ knees flexed: fever, elevated WBC, malaise appendicitis
if pain suddenly stops without tx suspect rupture.. DX- H and P, CBC, US, CT. TX- surgery, ABT, analgesics, avoid anything that will increase intraabdominal pressure appendicitus
Normal American stool evacuation is? 200-300 mg per day
excessive frequent passage of stools is? diarrhea
may be acute or chronic(less than 3 weeks in children and 4 in adults), common, can become a serious problem in children, Causes- infectious agents, food intolerance, drugs, intestinal disease, psychological diarrhea
2 types of diarrhea/ may be combo of both small volume and large volume
r/t increase in the propulsive activity, usually an inflammatory process (IBS) small volume diarrhea
r/t increase in water in the stool... secretory- water is secreted in, infectious agent, diarrhea+fever+vomiting= food poisoning... Osmotic- water is pulled in, lactose intolerance, usually goes away with fasting large volume diarrhea
DX- H and P, stool exam TX- NPO(nothing by mouth) bland diet, replace fluids, watch for what?, antidiarrheals, antispasmodics diarrhea
infrequent passage of stools... based on what is normal for that individual, increases with age, may be primary or secondary(colon cancer) constipation
causes of____ are failure to respond to urge, low fiber, low fluid, weak abd muscles, inactivity, pregnancy, hemorrhoids, spinal cord injuries, parkinson's, MS, hypothyroidism, narcotics, antichollinnergics, Ca channel blockers, diuretics, all antacids constipation
DX- H and P, X-ray, CT TX- relieve the cause(excercise, fluid, etc.) and laxatives constipation
impairement of movement of contents from the oral to the anal direction Intestinal obstruction
can lead to strangulation and necrosis of the bowel which can lead to death s/s- abd distention, gas and fluid accumulation, pain, constipation, N/V, restlessness, confusion Intestinal obstruction
________ _________ - hernia, post op adhesions, strictures, tumors, foriegn bodies, intersussception(telescoping) and volvulus(twisting) mechanical obstruction
_____ _______- neurological or muscular impairement of peristalsis paralytic obstruction
DX- H and P, X-ray TX- tx cause, NG tube, surgery Intestinal obstruction
local or generalized inflammation of the peritoneum peritonitis
primary(bacterial infections) or secondary(trauma, surgery)... may be a complication of a GI disorder, may progress from septisemia to septic shock to organ failure peritonitis
s/s- abd pain, fever, chills, anorexia, NV, guarding, rigidity, abd distention, diminished to absent bowel sounds, sweating, tachycardia, tacypnea, oliguria, restlessness, disorientation, elevated WBC peritonitis
DX- H and P, CBC, chemistry- US, BUN, creatinine, peritoneal aspiration w/ cultures TX- ABT, F and E replacement, NG tube, TPN peritonitis
_____ is known as failure to transport dietary components from the intestines to the ECF, it may be a single component or numerous malabsorption
causes of ______ include pancreatic dysfunction, hepatobiliary disease, bacterial infections, lesions, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, congenital defects, neoplasms, and trauma malabsorption
a group of s/s from multiple causes (Crohn's disease, celiac, intestinal resection) s/s diarrhea, steatorrhea, flatulence, bloating, abd pain, cramps, weakness, muscle wasting, wt loss, and abd distention... failure to absorb fat soluble vitamins malabsortion syndrome
intestinal cancers are pretty common... _____ ______ are the most common type in the intestine, polyps- mass that protrudes in the gut, usually benign but can become malignant adenomatous polyps (neoplasm)
second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US but declining, cause is unknown, usually present a while before symptoms occur colorectal cancer
risk factors include age, personal or family history of Crohn's, ulcerative colitis, and high fat diet... s/s include rectal bleeding, change in bowel habits, diarrhea, constipation, sense of urgency, pain(late stage) use staging system similar to TMN colorectal cancer
screening is extremely important- lab(CEA), digital exam, hemacult, barium enema, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy TX- resection, radiation, and chemo colorectal cancer
GI accessory organs include ___, ____, and _____ liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
digestive secretion, insulin and glucagon, and drug and hormone metabolism are the _____ ______ ________ general purpose GI accessory organs
largest visceral organ, contained within the rib cage, cannot be palpatated normally, has dual blood supply: hepatic artery and portal vein liver
tough capsule surrounding the liver Glisson's capsule
blood supply from general circulation hepatic artery
carries blood from the stomach, small and large intestines, pancreas and spleen; incompletely saturated with O2 portal vein
___ ml/min enters through the hepatic artery 300
____ ml/min enters through the portal vein 1050
the liver stores ___ for times of need 450
functional units in the liver are known as? lobules
produces bile, metabolizes and excretion of hormones and drugs, synthesizes proteins glucose and clotting factors, stores vitamins and minerals, changes ammonia produced by conversion of amino acids to urea, converts fatty acids to ketones liver
stores excess glucose as glycogen, releases glucose in times of need for energy, converts galactose and fructose to glucose, synthesizes glucose from amino acids, glycerol, and lactic acid, converts excess carbs to triglycerides for storage in adipose carbs
synthesis of albumin, protein degradation, amonnia is transfered as urea to the kidneys,amino acid degradation for glucose production protein
oxidation of fatty acids to supply energy for body functions, synthesis of cholesterol, phospholipids, most of lipoproteins, and formation of triglycerides fats
___ ____- emulsifies fats and enter through the portal vein several times before excretion through the feces bile salts
______- reduction in bile flow leading to accumulation of bilirubin in the blood, can cause changes in the liver cells cholestasis
_____- an abnormally high accumulation of bilirubin in the blood(more than 2.0mg per day), yellow discoloration, causes destruction of RBC's, impaired uptake and conjugation of bilirubin, and obstruction of bile flow jaundice
____ is formed from the breakdown of RBC's bilirubin
insoluble in plasma, transported attached to plasma albumin free bilirubin
conjugated bile is converted to _____ for excretion urobilionogen
elevation in liver enzymes indicate that they have been released from damaged cells ex. AST, ALT liver function/panel test
inflammation of the liver, usually viral, each virus differs in mode of transmission, incubation period, degree of liver damage, and ability to create a carrier state hepatitis
source of virus is feces, route of transmission is fecal to oral, no chronic infection, prevention includes pre or post immunization hepatitis A
source of hepatitis __ is blood derived or from body fluids, route of transmission is percutaneous or permucosal, it IS a chronic infection, and prevention is pre/post exposure immunization hepatitis B
the source of virus for hepatitis __ is blood derived or from body fluids, the route of transmission is percutaneous or permucosal, it IS a chronic inf., prevention is blood donor screening and risk behavior modification hepatitis C
source of hepatitis __ is blood derived or body fluids, route of transmission is percutaneous or permucosal, it IS a chronic infection, prevention is pre/post exposure immunization and risk behavior modification hepatitis D
source of virus for hepatitis __ is through the feces, route of transmission is fecal-oral, it is NOT a chronic infection, prevention is to ensure safe drinking water hepatitis E
can be either acute or chronic( causes cirrhosis) causes other than virus- hepatobiliary obstruction from gallstones or from the toxic effects of alchohol, drugs, toxins, or infectious agents hepatitis
viral infections create hepatic cell necrosis, scarring, hyperplasia, and infiltration by phagocytes/ cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells promote cellular injury/ hepatic cells begin to regenerate within 48 hrs/ distortion of the liver structure hepatitis
____ causes obstruction of the portal and hepatic blood flow and increases the portal pressure causing engorgement, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly, cholestasis and jaundice result hepatitis
____ stage of hepatitis- (before jaundice occurs) s/s are malaise, fatigue, N/V/D, anorexia, enlarged liver and lymph nodes, electrolyte imbalances, conjunctivitis, skin rash and pain preicteric
___ stage of hepatitis- (onset of jaundice) s/s are jaundice, pruritis, light colored stools, brown urine, malaise, and preicteric s/s improve icteric
______ stage of hepatitis- (convalescent stage) s/s are decrease in fatigue, appetite returns to normal, lab work improves, and pain subsides postecteric
_____ hepatitis- complication, necrosis of the liver, possibly resulting in liver failure,develops 6-8 weeks after initial s/s, leads to ascities, GI bleeding, lethargy, disorientation, coma, HIGH MORTALITY Fulminant hepatitis
DX- chemistry, liver function tests, serum bilirubin, serum antibodies (all anti tests) TX- antiemetics, antihistamines, emollient creams, handwashing, increased carb diet, standard prec, vaccines for A and B hepatitis
s/s of ____ are pain in back or right shoulder, fever, N/V, jaundice, clay colored stools, intolerance to fatty foods, epigastric pain, and heartburn hepatitis
common, 5th leading cause of death in the US, liver failure, esophageal varices, kidney failure, may have a genetic factor cirrhosis (Alchohol induced liver disease)
intermittent stage of alchohol induced liver disease b/w cirrhosis and fatty liver, common in binge drinkers, inflammation and necrosis hepatitis
stage of alchohol induced liver disease, accumulation of fat in liver cells fatty liver disease/ steatosis
risk factors of ____ include alchoholism, viral hepatitis, toxic reactions, biliary obstruction, cardiac disease, hemochromatosis(iron is excessively absorbed and accumulated), and Wilson's disease(increased copper in the organs) risk factors for Cirrhosis
scarring and fibroid production puts pressure on the blood vessels and biliary ducts, increased capillary pressure causes increased fluid accumulation in abd and development of PORTAL HTN Cirrhosis
_____ _____ causes collateral circulation to develop in the stomach rectum and esophagus, cause varices, esophageal varices are irritated by alchohol and food and can rupture and cause excess bleeding, melena, and hematemesis occur Cirrhosis
black stools from blood as a result of Cirrhosis Melena
____ _____ causes back up of blood into the spleen leading to splenomegaly and an increased breakdown of WBC's RBC's and platelets pulmonary hypertension as a result of Cirrhosis
______ _______- damage to the brain tissue due to the ammonia build up hepatic encephalopathy
normal pressure in portal vein is 5-10 mmhg; with portal HTN it reaches __ 12mmHg
Portal HTN results in decreased protein synthesis leading to decreased albumin which leads to what? look up answer
distende tortuous collateral veins from prolonged pressure, mortality from rupture is 30-60%, may die within 1 year esophageal varices (complication of cirrhosis)
rupture of an _____ _____ is a medical emergency, surgical compression of the varices and sclerotherapy, blood replacement, maintain airway, and gastric lavage with cool saline esophageal varices (complication of cirrhosis)
cosequences of ____ _____ include bleeding disorders, edema, hypoglycemia, fat soluble vitamin def., fatty stools, encephalopathy, secondary sex charecteristic changes, drug metabolism pxs, and jaundice liver failure
TX for ____ ____ include eliminate cause, prevent infections, high carb and cal diet(prevents protein breakdown for energy) correct FandE, decrease ammonia, transplant liver failure
not common in the US, primary tumors have a poor prognosis, often metastasizes from pulmonary, breast, and GI, causes- chronic cirrhosis, viral chlorie exposure, inorganic arsenic, pesticides, prolonged androgen therapy and contraceptive steriods cancer of the liver
metastasis to the heart, lung, brain, kidney and spleen are common due to the hepatic and portal vein, benign tumors are known as adenomas(usually women, oral contraceptives) cancer of the liver
two types of liver cancer hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma
arising from liver cells, nodular, massive, diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma
primary cancer of the bile duct cells, not as common cholangiocarcinoma
small organ, stores bile, prescence of food in the small intestine triggers the release of bile gallbladder
formation of stones in the biliary ducts or the gallbladder, more common in women, gallstones form when cholesterol and Ca precipitate as solid crystals within the mucous lining of the gallbladder cholelithiasis
inflammation of the cystic duct caused by lodging or a gallstone in the duct, may be acute or chronic cholecystitis
stones in the common duct choledocholithiasis
inflammation in the common duct cholangitis
not very common, poor prognosis, usually found at the time of gallbladder surgery, gallstones may play a role due to the constant irritation s/s are insidious cancer of the gallbladder
inflammation of the pancreas, may be acute or chronic pancreatitis
____ _____- necrosis, suppuration(abscesses), gangrene and hemorrhage occurs acute pancreatitis
___ ______- formation of scar tissue that interferes with the function chronic pancreatitis
_____ _______ - multi organ failure and mortality occurs when toxic enzymes are released into the bloodstream and distributed by vessels into major organs acute pancreatitis
______ ________ - irreversible and leaves connectie tissue in place of pancreatic tissue, structural or functional impairment of the pancreas, pancreatic cysts are common chronic pancreatitis
nearly all of these cancers are fatal, causes are longerm DM, chronic pancreatitis, and smoking, often invade everything surrounding it cancer of the pancreas
organic substances that are needed in small amounts promote growth and maintain health, human cells cannot produce these with the exception of D, must be supplied in diet, deficiency results in disease vitamins
coenzymes essential to metabolic processes vitamin B
precursor of retinol needed for normal vision vitamin A
regulates calcium metabolism vitamin D
needed to produce prothrombin vitamin K
lipid soluble vitamins, must be ingested with lipids to be absorbed in small intestine A,D, E, and K
water soluble vitamins, absorbed with water in the digestive tract, easily dissolved in blood and body fluids, excess cannot be stored and must be excreted in the urine C and B
minimum amount of a vitamin needed to avoid symptoms of deficiency Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA
poverty, fad diets, chronic alchohol or drug abuse, prolonged parental feeding factors that contribute to deficiency
obtained from foods containing carotene Vitamin A
D2- from dairy products/ D3- from ultraviolet light Vitamin D
tocopherols, found in plant seed oils, whole grain cereals, eggs, certain organ meats/ primary antioxidant Vitamin E
mixture of several chemicals, K1- obtained from plant sources, K2- obtained from microbial florain colon and is needed for clotting Vitamin K
Vitamin _ deficiency can cause scurvy C
______ ___ deficiency can cause beriberi thiamine B1
_____ __ deficiency can cause pellagra Niacin B3
_______ ___ deficiency can cause pernicious or megaloblastic anemia Cyanocobalamin B12
deficiencies of _______, ________, and _______ indicate need for pharmacotherapy with water soluble vitamins riboflavin B2, folic acid B9, and pyridoxine B6
inorganic substances, very little needed to maintain normal metabolism, constitutes 4% of body weight, can be obtained from normal diet, excess can be TOXIC minerals
_____ administered for severe liver disease thiamine
_____ and _____ may cause sever flushing Niacin and pyroxidine
asses women of child-bearing age for ____ _____ deficiency folic acid
caution clients with history of kidney stones against use of vitamin __ C
advise clients taking vitamin C to increase ____ _____ fluid intake
_____ ______ vitamins are not stored in the body and must be replinished daily water soluble
calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, sulfur seven major macrominerals
macrominerals must be obtained from diet in ____ mg or greater 100
there are nine trace microminerals that include iron, iodine, flourine, and zinc that must be obtained from diet in __ mg or LESS 20
low dietary intake, malabsorption disorders, fad diets, and wasting disorders such as cancer causes of undernutrition
poverty, depression, difficulty eating reasons for low dietary intake
Created by: kristenferris