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M30 Elimination

NUR 111 Module 30 Elimination

Bulk-forming Laxatives (e.g., psyllium fiber) Product that causes stool to absorb water & swell, stimulating peristalsis. Usually acts within 24hrs. May interfere w/ absorption of Ca & Fe & certain drugs.
Stool softener (e.g., docusate) Agent has detergent activity allowing H2O & fat to penetrate & lubricate stool. Recommended for someone who must avoid straining. Lubricant component of drug may interfere w/ absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
Emollient (lubricant) (e.g., Mineral Oil) Lubricates intestinal tract & slows colonic absorption of water, softening stool, making it easier to pass. Usually effective within 8hrs. May interfere w/ absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Can be aspirated, risk of lipid pneumonia.
Stimulant (e.g., bisadocyl) Irritates intestinal mucosa or stimulates nerve endings in intestinal wall to promote peristalsis. Works more quickly than bulking agents. Most Abused lax. Causes lazy bowel syndrome
Saline-osmotic (e.g., magnesium hydroxide) Draws H2O into intestine & stimulates peristalsis. Used for rapid cleansing. Should not be used by elderly. Can cause dehydration. Not rec. in pts w/ kidney disease or heart failure.
Diphenoxylate & atropine Slows gastric motility. Advantages: Effective Cautions: Chemically related to morphine; atropine added to prevent addiction, high doses can still become addictive. May cause drowsiness.
Loperamide Inhibits peristalsis by direct effect on gastrointestinal muscle walls. Advantages: Not addictive. Longer duration than Lomotil. Cautions: May cause drowsiness. DC if no improvement within 48hrs.
Kaolin-pectin Absorbs Advantages: No drowsiness. Cautions: May interfere w/ absorption of other meds. May interfere w/ nutrient absorption.
Bismuth subsalicylate Decrease secretion of GI tract. Antimicrobial action against bacterial & viral pathogens. Advantages: No drowsiness. Cautions: Contains salicylates. Chk w/ physician before admin to children or admin w/ aspirin. May decrease absorption of some meds.
Tap water (hypotonic) enema Amt: 500-1,000 mL Action: Increases peristalsis, softens stool. Time: 15 min SE: F & E imbalance, H2O intoxication.
Normal saline (isotonic) enema Amt: 500-1,000 mL Action: Increases peristalsis, softens stool. Time: 15 min SE: F & E imbalance, sodium retention.
Soap enema Amt: 500-1,000 mL (concentrate @ 3-5 mL/1,000 mL) Action: Irritates intestinal mucosa, softens stool. Time: 10-15 min SE: Rectal mucosa irritation or damage.
Hypertonic enema Amt: 70-130 mL Action: Irritates intestinal mucosa. Time: 5-10 min SE: Sodium retention.
Oil (mineral, olive, or cottonseed oil) enema Amt: 150-200 mL Lubricates stool & intestinal mucosa. Time: 30 min
Foods That May Cause Gas Alcohol & beer, carbonated beverages, chewing gum, chives, cucumbers, dried peas, beans, & lentils, eggs, some fried food, melon, onions, peppers, pickles, sauerkraut.
Foods That May Cause Stomal Blockage Bean sprouts, cabbage, raw carrots, celery, coconut, corn, cucumbers, dried fruit, green pepper skin, lettuce, mushrooms, nuts, olives, peas, pickles, pineapple, popcorn, seeds, skins & seeds from fruits & veggies, spinach.
Foods That May Help To Control Diarrhea Applesauce, bananas, cheese, creamy peanut butter, oatmeal or oatbran, potatoes, soda crackers, starchy foods (rice & pasta), yogart.
Foods That Produce Odor Asparagus, dried peas, beans, eggs, fish, garlic, onions, turnip.
Foods That Are Natural Intestinal Deodorizers Buttermilk, parsley, yogart.
What is the normal pH range of urine? Normal raneg it 4.5-8. High-protein diet causes urine to be acidic. Citrus fruits, dairy prod., & veg., cause unrine to be alkaline.
What is the normal specific gravity range of urine? Normal range is 1.005-1.035. Concentrated urine has higher specific gravity & diluted urine has lower specific gravity.
Turbidity of urine Fresh urine should be clear or translucent. Becomes cloudy as it stands and cools.
Define: Anuria 24-hr urine output is <50 mL. Kidney shutdown or renal failure.
Define: Dysuria Painful or difficult urination.
Define: Frequency Increased incidence of voiding.
Define: Nocturia Waking up at night to urinate.
Define: Oliguria Greatly diminished amount of urine voided in a given time. 24-hr urine output is < 400 mL.
Define: Polyuria Excessive output of urine (diuresis).
Define: Proteinuria Protein in urine; indication of kidney disease.
Define: Pyuria Pus in the urine; urine appears cloudy.
Define: Suppression Ceased urine production; Adult kidneys usually produce 60-120 mL/hr.
Define: Urgency Strong desire to void.
Define: Urinary incontinence Involuntary loss of urine.
Opium Increases tone of smooth muscle Decrease GI motility Diminishes GI secretions Advanages: Effective Cautions: May be addictive. May cause drowsiness & lighheadedness. D/C when diarrhea has ceased.
Created by: mojoshare