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Chapter 9 Vocabulary

Conquistador name for the Spanish explorers who claimed land in the Americas for spain
cultural convergence the contact and interaction of one culture with another
caudillo a Latin american military dictator
pampas a grassland region in Argentina and uruguay
cay a small, low island or coral reef
coral the rock-like skeletons of tiny sea animals
tropical storm a storm with winds of at least 39 miles per hour
hurricane a destructive tropical storm that forms over the Atlantic ocean, usually in late summer and early fall, with winds of at least 74 miles per hour
El Nino a warm ocean current off south americas northwestern coast that influences global weather patterns
canopy the uppermost layer of a forest where tree branches meet.
mestizo a person of mixed European and Native American heritage
mulatto a person of mixed African and European ancestry
Volcanoes a break in earth's crust where magma and other material erupts from earth's interior
Rain forest a type of thick evergreen forest found in areas of heavy rainfall
deserts a geographic region with too little rainfall to support much plant life; also vegetation zone
isthmus a narrow strip of land that links two larger landmasses
landmasses a very large, unbroken area of land
Volcanic Islands an island formed when an underwater volcano builds up enough lava and ash to rise above sea level
Plateaus a raised area of land, such as a hill or mountain, with a flat top
basin a bowl-shaped depression, or hallow, in earth's surface
climates the pattern of weather over a long period of time
temperate moderate or mild, without extremes of hot or cold
arid dry or lacking rainfall; also a climate or climate zone that is hot and dry all year with very little rain
semiarid dry, with little rainfall; also a climate or climate zone with hot, dry summers and cool, dry winters
tropical wet and dry a climate or climate zone that is hot all year with rainy and dry seasons
ecosystem a community of all the living things in an area and the environment in which they live
cloud forest a type of high-altitude, tropical forest that is usually covered by clouds or mist
hurricanes the name for a tropical cyclone that begins in the Atlantic ocean
broad leaf evergreen forest a vegetation zone of mainly tall trees that remain green all year; also refers to the type of vegetation in this zone
Desert scrub a vegetation zone of mainly small trees, bushes, and other plants adapted to a dry climates; also refers to the type of vegetation in this zone
tropical grasslands vegetation or a vegetation zone of mainly grasses and scattered trees adapted to a tropical wet and dry climate
vegetation zone a large area of earth with a certain mix of plants and trees that are adapted to similar conditions
forest floor a bottom layer, or ground, of a forest
temperate grasslands vegetation or a vegetation zone of mainly grasses and scattered trees adapted to a tropical wet and dry climate
empire a group of territories, peoples, or nations ruled by a single authority
dictator a leader who governs by force, without the consent of the people
urban found or live in a city
natural resources a useful material that is found in nature, such as water, wood, coal, or oil
economic activities any action that relates to the marking,buying, and selling of goods and services
livestock raising raising animals for food, milk, wool, or other products
subsistence farming farming carried out mainly to provide food for farm families, with little surplus for sale to others
barter conducting trade by exchanging goods or services instead of money
hydro electric power electricity that is generated from the power of moving water
commercial farming raising crops for sale, often with the use of large ships
plantations a large farm, especially in a hot area
forestry the planting, growing, and harvesting of trees
tourism travel for pleasure rather than business or necessity; also, the business of organizing such travel
Created by: Student102



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