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Respiratory Diseases


reduction on blood O2; maybe pulmonary or cardiac in origin; refer to anemia class hypoxia
prolonged hypoxia can lead to ____ leading to _____ heart failure pulmonary HTN...RIGHT
leading cause of death in men and women in the US lung cancer
why is lung cancer a preventable cancer? b/c smoking is the #1 cause of lung cancer
cancer that stems from the bronchial or bronchiolar epithelium; 90-95% of all lung cancers; very aggressive; locally invasive; widely metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma
25-40% of bronchogenic carcinoma that is most often seen in men and is correlated with smoking squamous cell
20% of bronchogenic carcinoma and is more common in men smokers small cell carcinoma
20-40% of bronchogenic carcinoma most common in women and nonsmokers; associated with scarring from infarcts, metals, wounds, or TB; grows slower adenocarcinoma
10-15% of bronchogenic carcinoma and is difficult to diagnosis and has a poor prognosis large cell carcinoma
____ is a common cancer s/s anorexia
blockage of pulmonary artery by a blood clot pulmonary embolism
atelectasis lung collapse
elevated pressures >20 in the pulmonary artery; usually results from pulmonary or cardiac problems pulmonary HTN
HTN not related to another cause PRIMARY HTN
HTN related to another disease SECONDARY HTN
___ sided heart failure is common cause of primary pul. HTN left
chronic inflammatory disorder that results in reversibnle bronchoconstriction bronchial asthma
emergency where asthma attack is prolonged and not responsive to the usual tx or the pt is having one attack after another status asthma
leading cause of chronic illness in children childhood asthma
what are the 4 types of COPD? emphysema, chronic bronchitis, bronchilectasis, cystic fibrosis
what does COPD stand for? chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
group of chornic pulmonary dxs characterized by > airflow resistance COPD
fibrosos of lung loss of elasticity of the lung
O2 becomes the driving force for breathing COPD
pink puffer emphysema
the breakdown of the elastin and fiber network of the alveoli where the alveoli where the alveoli enlarge or walls destroyed leaving than normal air spaces emphysema
loose ability to amintain blood gases by hyperventilation which gives the skin a pink appearance emphysema
affects central bronchioles; most common; usually male smokers; emphysema centriacinar
affects peropheral alveoli; usually aplha 1-antitrypin deficiency (rare) panacinar
what dx chornic bronchitis? a chronic cough and productive sputum for a minimum of 3 months in 1 year for at least 2 years consecutively
. in #/size of goblet cells with inflammation cell infiltraion and edema of the bronchial mucosa chronic bronchitis
blue bloaters chronic bronchitis
permanent; abnormal dilation of the large bronchi associated with infection and destruction of bronchial walls and leads to atelectasis, abscesses, destruction and necrosis bronchiectasis
what is a main s/s of bronchiectasis? foul-smelling purulent sputum, wheezing, cor pulmonale
autosomal-recessive disorder; long arm of chromosome 7; extrememly common cystic fibrosis
lacks a necessary protein CFTR needed to transport CI resulting in excess absorption of water and Na cystic fibrosis
what is a main s/s of cystic fibrosis? sweat has high level of Na, barrel chest, RIGHT sided heart failure, steatorrhea, vit K def
most common cause of illness in infants acute respiratory distress
what is a sign of respiratory obstuction? grunting and stidor
may be an allergic reaction and occurs at night with RTI (spasms and constrictions) spasmodic croup
what is the TX for spasmodic croup? cool humidity
epiglottis gets swollen and inflammed, closing the airway epiglottitis
what is the common cause of epiglottits? H. influenza
a harsh vibrating sound heard during respiration in cases of obstruction of the air passages stridor
often job related---includes hypersensitiviy pneumonitis, diseases as a result of toxic drugs and radiation, occupational lung disease interstitial/restrictive lung disease
what are some common s/s of interstitial/restrictive lung disease? nonproductive cough, cynosis, later sign clubbing
What is a good dx for interstitial/restrictive lung disease? Galluim lung study
what does ARDS stand for? adult respiratory distress syndrome
multiple causes; pulmonary capillaries are injured ARDS
What is a good TX for ARDS? ventilation PEEP, NSAIDs, surfactant
ABG arterial blood gases
inability of the lungd to maintain adequate oxygenation respiratory failure
can be caused by anything that impairs ventilation and/or perfusion respiratory failure
neuron changes is a s/s of ___ respiratory failure
inflammation of the pleura pleuritis (pleurisy)
feels like sharp stabbing pain in the chest when one takes a breath pleuritis (pleurisy)
analgesics insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness
disorder of the pleura in which the lungs deflate pleural effusion
> fluid in the pleural space compressiong the lung pleural effusion
s/s is no breathing sounds and asymmetrical chest movement pleural effusion
accumulation of transudate (CHF most common, renal failure, nephrosis, liver failure, and malignancy) hydrothorax---pleural effusion
sp. gravity > 1.020; infections, SLE exudate---pleural effusion
pus in the pleural cavity; infectious empyema----pleural effusion
effusion of the lymph (results from trama, inflammation, malignancy, intrathorasic surgeries, and TPN chylothorax----pleural effusion
milky fluid containing chylomicrons is found in the lymph chyle
where is chyle found? the lymph
presence of blood; results usually from trama hemothorax----pleural effusion
air in the pleural space pneumothorax
what are the 3 types of pneumothorax? spontaneous, traumatic, tension
a sudden collapse of the lungs d/t leakage of atm air into the pleural cavity (blister0 spontaneous (pneumothorax)
caused by blunt or penetrarting trama---"sucking" chest wound---latrogenic traumatic (pneumothorax)
air entering the lung cannot escape by the same route which > pleural cavity pressure tension (pneumothorax)
what disorder has s/s of asymmetrical chest movement and < breath sounds pneumothorax
chronic progessive disorder of the peripheral nervous system myasthenia gravis
affects the transmission of nerve impulses to voluntary muscles, causing muscle weakness and fatigue that > with exertion and improves with rest myasthenia gravis
affect women 3x more than men until after age 50 myasthenia gravis
autoimmune processes tigger the formation of autoantibodies that < the # of acetycholine receptors and widen the junction gap myasthenia gravis
in myasthenia gravis uscle contractions are hindered b/c the _____ prevent acetycholine from binding with receptors IgG autoantibodies
unilateral ptosis (eyelids drooping), muscle fatigue, and incontinence (lack of bladder control) are common s/s of ____ myasthenia gravis
what is a TX for myasthenia gravis? anticholinesterses, immunosuppressants
sudden motor weakness; risk of resp failure, aspiration, most oftern caused by not enough medication of infection myasthenic crisis (myasthenia gravis)
severe muscle weakness, caused by overmedication, s/s- cramps, diarrea, bradycaria, bronchial spasms w/ > pulmonary secretions and resp. compromise Cholinergic crisis (myasthenia gravis)
peripheral nerve disorder involving several nerves; cell-mediated; nerve impulses are slowed or stopped Guillain-Barre Syndrome
_____ exists, lymphocytes are sensitized adn aid in damaging the myelin in Guillain-Barre Syndrome IgM antimyelin antibody
muscles lose innervation and begin to waste in ___ Guillain-Barre Syndrome
crainal nerve involvement, dysphagia (difficulting swallowing), autonomic dysfunction are all s/s of ____ Guillain-Barre Syndrome
antibodies are formed to the surface antigens to prevent future infections in ____ influenza
what is the TX goal for influenza? to limit the infection to only the upper resp tract
what is the incubation for influenza? 1-4 days
elevated WBC is a s/s of ___ pneumonia
alveoli become engorged with fluid and RBC and air is unable to get to alveoli pneumonia
what is the most common type of pneumonia? pneumococcal----streptococcus pneumonia
acute bacterial infection; very common; usually self-limiting; found in warm water, standing water (air vents) lagionnaire
a non-contagious pneumoina legionnaire
what is the atypical pneumonia that may be a complication of chicken pox and measles mycoplasm/viral pneumiona
are the smallest free-living agents of disease; has characteristics of both viruses and bacteria mycoplasms
type of pneumonia caused by the acid-fast bacillus, mycobacterium TB
TB is carried by ___ airborne droplets
TB cannot be ___ only ____ destroyed...isolated
where does TB grow? in macrophages
a gray and smelly cough and gray sweat is a s/s of ____ TB
what are some forms of fungal infections of the resp? (3) acute, chronic, disseminated
what are the 4 classes of fungal infections of the resp? superficial, subcutaneous, deep (strong organisms that get into the deep tissue), opportunistic (weak organisms that cause infection in the immunosuppressed)
Created by: TayBay15