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6th Science

Chapter 3

Earthquakes sometimes cause monstrous waves called______ tsunamis
A break that appears at the boundary between two moving masses of rock known as a ________ fault
The point underground where an earthquake begins is called the _______ focus
The place at ground level that is directly above the focus of an earthquake is known as_______ epicenter
Any trembling or shaking of the earth's crust is defined as a _________ earthquake
The strength of an earthquake is called its______ magnitude
What occurs natural acids slowly eat into a rock breaking it apart? chemical weathering
The temperature of rocks ___________with depth increases
What is created when trapped gases blast through the earth's surface? vent
A _______ allows molten rock and hot gases to escape from within the earth. volcano
scientists who study the structure of the earth geologists
the process by which new soil is formed as rocks crumble and break into smaller pieces weathering
boundary between the earth's crust and its mantle Moho
underwater mountain ranges mid-oceanic ridges
study of earthquakes seismology
volcano that has been active at some time in recorded history but has not erupted recently dormant
volcano that produces lava fountains or fire curtains Hawaiian
volcano characterized by hot clouds of gas and dust that it expels Plinian
volcano that has erupted recently active
volcano that has not erupted in recorded history extinct
magma that has reached the earth's surface lava
Running along the edge of the Pacific Ocean the _____is named for its many volcanoes. Ring of Fire
A depression found at the top of a volcano crater
Holes or cracks which serve as escape vents for underground gases fumaroles
smaller fragments of molten rock that solidify almost instantly tephra
Volcano that is formed from large amounts of very fluid lava that built up gradually, The Hawaiian Islands were formed by this type of volcano Shield
Volcano formed by eruptions of mostly tephra and very little lava, Paricutin is an example cinder cone
Volcano formed by alternating layers of tephra and lava, Mt. St. Helens is an example composite
Outermost layer of the earth, it is thin compared to the other layers crust
Middle layer of the earth, makes up the largest portion of the earth's interior, made of solid rock mantle
innermost region of the earth, divided into 2 sections, the (liquid) outer ____ and (solid)inner ____, which are made up of metals rather than rock core
The hardest known mineral found in "pipes" diamond
Small deposits of igneous and metamorphic crystals gemstones
Any hollow space in the earth's crust that has formed naturally and is large enough for a person to enter cave
Any rock containing a metal together with impurities ore
The rarest most durable and beautiful gems precious stones
The most commonly used practical metal; used thousands of years to make tools iron
A metal that is a good conductor of electricity; 2 of its alloys are brass and bronze copper
Any trace of a plant or animal left in a rock fossil
The area surrounding a magnet in which the force of the magnet affects other objects magnetic field
The ends of a magnet poles
The magnetic field produced by the earth magnetosphere
The hardest material that composes the earth's crust rock
When molten rock solidifies, it forms igneous rock
Rock that has been changed by extreme heat or pressure into a new rock is metamorphic rock
Over 75% of the earth's surface is covered with sedimentary rock
What type of igneous rock is formed at the earth's surface, cools rapidly, and has a fine-grained appearance? extrusive
What type of igneous rock remains in a pocket below the surface, cools slowly, and has a course-grained appearance? intrusive
Most common igneous rock/ can be found everywhere granite
Sedimentary rock formed by chemical sediments and is used for salting roads and flavoring foods halite
Sedimentary rock used to make glass sandstone
Only sedimentary rock formed by living animals reef limestone
Metamorphic rock that began as shale, is very hard, and has leaflike layers slate
Metamorphic rock that is probably one of the most beautiful and most widely used and began as limestone marble
What type of metamorphic rock is made up of layers like leaves of a book foliated
Hard, shiny, black coal; expensive to mine anthracite
Most common type of coal, "soft coal" bituminous
Poorest quality of coal, "brown coal" sub-bituminous
Designed to live in a cave or above a cave troglophile
The study of caves speleology
Cave formed by the dissolving of underground rocks by water solution cave
Caves usually form in _______ limestone
___________visits a cave regularly but must return to the surface for food trogloxene
Poorest quality coal lignite
Petroleum in its natural form crude oil
Created by: Chandler1314