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Ch. 13

ABA 344

QuestionAnswer
Adjunctive Behaviours Behaviour that occurs as a collateral effect of a schedule of periodic reinforcment for other behaviour; time-filling or interim activities (eg. doodling, idle talking, smoking, drinking) that are induced by
schedules of reinforcment during times when reinforcement is unlikely to be delivered. Also called scheldule-induced behaviour.
Alternative Schedule Provides reinforcment whenever the requirement of either a ratio schedule or an interval schedule- the basic schedules that make up the alternative schdule- is met, regarless of which of the component schedules requirements is met first.
Chained Schedule of Reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which the response requirement s of two or more basic schedules must be met in a specific sequence before reinforcement is delivered; a discriminative stimulus is correlated with each compenent of the schedule.
Compound Schedule of Reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more elements of continious reinforcement, the four intermittent schedules of reinforcement (FR,VR, FI, VI), differential reinforcment of various rate of responding, (DRH,DRL), and extinction.
The elements from these basic schedules can occur successively or simultaneously and with or without discriminative stimului; reinforcement may be contigent on meeting the requirements of each element of the
schedule independently or incombination with all elements.
Concurrent Schedule (conc) A schedule of reinforcement in which two or more contigencies of reinforcment (elements) operate independently and simulataneouslyfor two or more behaviours.
Continuous Reinforcement (CRF) A schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement for each occerence of the target behaviour.
differential reinforcement of diminishing rates (DRD) A schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcement is provided at the end of a predetermined interval contingnet on the number of responses emitted during the interval being fewer than a gradually
decreasing criterion based on the individual's performance in pervious intervals (eg. more than three responses pre 5 mins, more than 5 responses pre 5 mins, more than 8 responses per 5 mins)
differential reinforcement of high rates (DRH) A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is provided at the end of a predetermined interval contingent on the number of responses emitted during th einterval being greater than a gradually increasing criterion based on the
individual's performance in pervious intervals (eg; more than 3 responses per 5 mins, more than 5 responses per 5 mins, more than 8 responses per 5 mins)
differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement (a) follows each occurence of the target behaviour that is seperated from th epervious response by a minimum interresponse time(IRT), or (b)is contingent on the number of responses within a period
of time not exceeding a predetermined criterion. Practioners use DRL schedules to decrease the rate of behaviours that occur too frequently but should be maintained in the learners repertiore.
Fixed Interval (FI) A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is delivered for the first response emitted following the passage of a fixed duration of time since the last response was reinforced
(eg: on an FI 3-min schedule,the first response followin gth epassage of 3 mins is reinforced)
Fixed Ratio (FR) A schedule of reinforcement requiring a fixed number of responses for reinforcement (eg: an FR 4 schedule reinforcement follows every forth response)
Intermittent Schedule of Reinforcement (INT) A contigency of reinforcement in which some, but not all, occurences of the behaviour produce reinforcement
Limited Hold A situation in which reinforcement is available only during a finite time following th elapse of an FI or VI interval; if the target response does not occur within th etime limit, reinforcement is witheld and a new interval begins
(EG: on a FI-5 min schedule with a limited hold of 30 secs, the first correct response following th eelapse of 5 mins is reinforced only if that response occurs within 30 secs after the end of th e5 min interval)
Matching Law The allocation of responses to choices available on concurrent schedules of reinforcement; rates of responding across choices are distributed in proportions that match the rates of reinforcement recieved from each choice alterantive.
Mixed Schedule (MIX) A compound schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more basic schedules of reinforcement (elements) that occur in an alternating, usually random, sequence; no discriminative stimului are correlated with
the presence or absence of each element of the schedule, and reinforcement is delivered for meeting the response requirements of the element in effect at any time.
Multiple Schedule (MULT) A compound schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more basic schedules of reinforcement (elements) that occur in a nalternating, usually random, sequence; a discriminative stimulus is correlated with
the presence or absence of each element of the schedule, and reinforcement is delivered for meeting th eresponse requirements of th element in effect at any time.
Postreinforcement Pause The absence of responding for a period of time following reinforcement; an effect commonly produced by fixed interval (FI) and fixed ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement
Pregressive Schedule of Reinforcement A schedule that systematically thins each succesive reinforcement opportunity independent of the individual's behaviour; progressive ratio (PR) and PRogressive interval (PI) schedules are thinned using arithmetic or geometric progressions.
Ratio Strain A behavioral effect associated with abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving form denser to thinner reinforement schedules; common effects include avoidance, aggression, and unpredictable pauses or cessation in responding
schedule of reinforcement A rule specifying th eenvironment arrangements and response requirements for reinforcement; a description of a contigency of reinforcement
Schedule Thinning Changing a contigency of reinforcement by gradually increasing th eresponse ratio or the extent ofthe time interval; it results in a lower rate of reinforcement per respones, time or both
Tanden Schedule A schedule of reinforcement identical to the chained schedule except, like the mix schedule, thetandem schedule does not use discriminative stimuli with th eelements in the chain.
Variable Interval (VI) A schedule of reinforcment the provides reinforcement for the firsy correct reponse following the elapse of variable durations of time occuring in a random or unpredicatable order.
The mean duration of the intervals is used to describe the schedule (EG: on a VI 10 min schedule, reinforcement is delivered for the first response following an average of 10 mins since th elastreinforced response, but
the time elapses following th elast reinforced response might range from 30 secs or less to 25 mins or more)
Variable Ratio (VR) A schedule of reinforcement requiring a varying number of reponses for reinforcement. The number of responses required varies around a random number; the mean number of responses required for reinforcement is used to describe the schedule
(EG: on a VR 10 schedule an average of 10 responses must be emitted for reinforcement, but the number of reponses required following the last reinforced response might range from 1 to 30 or more)
Created by: Allison3000