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A&P Integumentary

Review of Chapter 6, the Integumentary System

Skin Largest organ in the human body
Cutaneous membrane This is the technical term for "the skin."
epidermis The uppermost and thinnest layer of the skin. Made up of stratified squamous tissue.
dermis The deeper and thickest of the two layers of skin.
basement membrane Membrane that separates the epidermis and dermis.
hypodermis Layer of tissue found underneath the skin and any underlying structures. Made up mostly of adipose (fat) tissue. (Also known as the subcutaneous layer.)
What are the 5 layers of the epidermis from most superficial to deepest? Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale.
Stratum basale The layer of the epidermis that divides to create new cells.
Keratinocytes Cells in the epidermis that produce a waterproof protein called keratin.
Keratin Waterproof protein in the epidermis that protects and prevents dessication.
Melanocytes Cells in the epidermis that produce a pigment called melanin.
Melanin The pigment primarily responsible for skin color, which absorbs UV radiation.
albinism Hereditary disorder that is characterized by the lack of ability to produce melanin.
dermal papillae Fingerlike projections of the dermis which serve to create fingerprints.
sebaceous glands Glands found in the skin that secrete sebum or oil.
decubitus ulcers lacerations in the skin that develop when there is a constant, unrelieved pressure on a single area of the skin. Otherwise known as bed sores or pressure ulcers.
jaundice Condition that causes the skin and whites of the eyes to become yellow.
bilirubin Chemical that builds up in infants that causes jaundice.
arrector pili Muscles in the dermis that attach to hair follicles and cause hair to raise when contracted.
sweat glands exocrine glands in the skin that secrete a mix of water and salts through ducts to the surface of the skin
sebum oily substance made up of amino acids, fatty acids and proteins that is secreted by sebaceous glands.
keratinization The process by which skin cells die and are filled with keratin resulting in a tough, tightly packed layer of dead cells.
nails protective coverings on the ends of the fingers and toes.
hair follicle tubelike depression the extends from the surface into the dermis and contains the hair root.
Hair root The portion of the hair embedded in the skin.
Hair shaft The portion of the hair that extends above the skin.
Hair matrix The actively growing and dividing region of the hair.
Nail bed The portion of the skin on which the nail lies.
Lunula The white, moon-shaped region of the nail that is the most actively growing.
Radiation The primary means of heat loss from the body, in which infrared heat rays escape from warmer surfaces to cooler surroundings.
Conduction Heat moves from the body directly into the molecules of cooler objects in contact with its surface.
Convection Heat loss by the continuous circulation of air molecules.
Evaporation Heat loss due to sweating and the heated water leaving the surface of the skin
hypothalamus Part of the brain that acts as a control center for temperature regulation & homeostasis
Inflammation response to injury or stress; blood vessels dilate and become more permeable allowing fluids to leak into damaged tissues. Skin may also become red, swollen, warm & painful to the touch.
Scab Blood clot and dried fluids that protects and covers underlying tissue
Scar Extensive production of collagen fibers that form an elevation above the normal surface of the skin after injury.
First-degree burn A burn that only affects the epidermis
Second-degree burn A burn that affects the epidermis and part of the dermis
Third-degree burn A burn that affects the epidermis, dermis and its accessory organs.
Created by: cvillebio



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