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Human Biology

Word Definition
passive immunity the short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal.
vaccination inoculation: taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease
immunisation the act of making immune (especially by inoculation)
active immunity the immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen.
passive immunity the short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal.
artificial immunity Artificial passive immunity is a short-term immunization which is achieved by the transfer of human (or animal) antibodies specific for a pathogen to non-immune human or animal. It is used when there is a high risk of infection and the body has no suffici
Maternal immunity A form of temporary immunity passed from a mother to her offspring while in the uterus and after birth in the colostrum and milk.
Monocyte a large phagocytic white blood cell with a simple oval nucleus and clear, grayish cytoplasm.
Lymphocyte a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring esp. in the lymphatic system.
Phagocyte a type of cell within the body capable of engulfing and absorbing bacteria and other small cells and particles.
Antibodies a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
Antigens a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, esp. the production of antibodies.
First line of defence in body Your first line of defense in your body is your skin, closely followed by the white blood cells in your blood.
Second line of defense in body Your second line of defense in your body is your white blood cells which attack antigens that enter your body through holes in your body that you may or may not have purposely put there.
Boosters Boosters are vaccinations that you get every certain amount of time to give the number of antibodies in your bloodstream a boost to make sure that next time a disease enters the body the anti bodies will destroy it before it can harm you.
Revaccinations vaccination administered some period after an initial vaccination especially to strengthen or renew immunity
Pathogens A virus or bacteria that enters your body to harm you.
Symptom a physical or mental feature that is regarded as indicating a condition of disease, particularly such a feature that is apparent to the patient.
Inflammatory response Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function, It helps you to heal.
Histamine a compound that is released by cells in response to injury and in allergic and inflammatory reactions, causing contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of capillaries.
Memory cells a long-lived lymphocyte capable of responding to a particular antigen on its reintroduction, long after the exposure that prompted its production.
Basal membrane cell the deepest layer of the epidermis in the avian skin. Also called the dermoepidermal junction.
Support cell Any of the cells whose function is primarily to provide structural support in the epithelial membrane or tissue
Olfactory cell An olfactory receptor neuron, also called an olfactory sensory neuron, is a transduction cell within the olfactory system.
Goblet cell a column-shaped cell found in the respiratory and intestinal tracts, which secretes the main component of mucus.
Ciliated cell Cells possessing cilia.
Alveolar type 1 The type I cell is a complex branched cell with multiple cytoplasmic plates that are greatly attenuated and relatively devoid of organelles; these plates represent the gas exchange surface in the alveolus.
Alveolar type 2 The type two cell acts as the "caretaker" of the alveolar compartment. It responds to damage of the vulnerable type I cell by dividing and acting as a progenitor cell for both type I and type II cells.
Fibroblast A cell in connective tissue that produces collagen and other fibers.
Macrophage A large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, esp. at sites of infection.
Red blood cell Less technical term for erythrocyte.
Endothelial cell The endothelium is the thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Surfactant A substance that tends to reduce the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved.
Alveolus structure and function Gas exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the alveoli. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli and adjacent capillaries into the red blood cells. The oxygen is then carried by the blood to the body tissues.
Mucous secreting cells in stomach The gastric mucosa is the mucous membrane layer of the stomach which contains the glands and the gastric pits. It consists of epithelium, lamina propria, and the muscularis mucosae.
Parietal Cells An oxyntic (acid-secreting) cell of the stomach wall.
Chief Cells In human anatomy, there are two types of chief cells, the gastric chief cell and the parathyroid chief cell.
Enteroendocrine cells in stomach They are specialized endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas that produce hormones in response to various stimuli gastrointestinal hormones or peptides and release them into the bloodstream for systemic effect.
Stem cell in the gut The epithelium of the adult mammalian intestine is in a constant dialog with its underlying mesenchyme to direct progenitor proliferation, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation, and, ultimately, cell death.
Created by: oliverwaring