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Advanced Patho EXAM 3

What is the most common metabolic bone disease that leads to fragile bones and fractures? osteoporosis
The W.H.O. defines osteoporosis as bone mineral density _______ below the peak BMD. >2.5 standard deviations
Who is at risk for developing Osteroporosis? family hx, menopause, excess smoking/alcohol intake, chronic renal or inflammatory disease, Caucasian or Asian race
True or false, osteocalcin levels are decreased in osteoporosis. False, they are increased
Describe gout. Heterogenous disorder where build up of uric acid, accumulates in different joints (i.e. big toe)
What bone changes are seen in osteoarthritis? progressive lack of articular cartilage, formation of thick subchondral bone and new bone at joints
What is the treatment for Rheumatoid arthritis? analgesics, steroid, DMARDS(anti-rheumatic drugs, i.e. enbrel, humira), prevention of structural damage
What is the difference between osteomalacia and rickets? Osteomalacia is the adult form of rickets
What part of the body does osteosarcoma develop in? in the metaphyseal region of long bones
What treatment is prescribed with osteoarthritis? tylenol, NSAIDS, PT, weight reduction, assistive devices, joint replacement
What joint d/o would you see heberden and/or bouchard nodes in the hands? osteoarthritis
What are s/s of osteoarthritis? morning stiffness, boney enlargment of joints, crepitus with movement; improves with movement
If a child has Rickets, what would you expect to see? genu valbum (knock nee) and genu varum (bowleg); kids should out grow both
What is characteristic of Rheumatoid Arthritis? bilateral involvement of affected joints
What is the treatment for osteosarcoma? amputation, chemo and/or radiation
Degenerative joint disease is also known as what? osteoarthritis, the most common arthritis world wide
What is the name of the pediatric malignant bone disorder that often occurs in long bones and causes pain? Ewing sarcoma
What is the cause of Rickets? vit D deficiency prevents normal calcium and phosphorus absorption; deficits in these minerals = soft osteopenic bones
What are some s/s of Rheumatoid arthritis? symmetrical patters of pain in joints, edema at joints, bone erosion, cysts and fissures
What age group does osteosarcoma present/affect? 10-30 years
Describe Rheumatoid Arthritis. systemic inflammatory disease affecting the connective tissue unknown cause, may be an autoimmune disease occurs more in females
This chronic inflammatory disease can affect any organ system; occurs more in African Americans, Hispanics and Asians and women 15-40 years. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
How does SLE cause damage to the musculoskeletal system? the antibodies can directly damage tissues or combine with antigens to create tissue damaging immune complexes
What does cancer do to the bones? predisposes to fractures
What are some s/s of SLE? arthralgia, synovitis in joints, pain; any organ system can be involved
What is the name of the skeletal muscle disorder that is a severe, x-linked trait that has a survival age of less than 20 years? Duchenne muscular dystrophy
What is the difference between subluxation and dislocation? dislocation: displacement of bone from its normal position, articulating surfaces lose complete contact. subluxation: same displacement occurs but only partial contact is lost
What causes the problems in duchenne muscular dystrophy? muscle cells deficient in protein dysrophin; results in muscle fiber necrosis and muscle degeneration
How can subluxation and dislocation occur? swinging kids around by their arms; uncontrollable forces causes aspect of joint to move beyond it's normal limitation
What are the different types of fractures? comminuted, greenstick, stress, transverse, spiral, oblique, longitudinal
What is the most common fracture in kids and where does it occur? greenstick fracture
What is the epiphyseal plate and why is damage to it a concern? aka the growth place; allows for lengthening in long bones in children. Damage to it can stunt growth in that bone/limb/location
What do ligaments and tendons do? keep surfaces together and aid movement
How does aging negatively affect cartilage? dries out with use and age; microcracks and fragments can accumulate in joint space as loose bodies; cartilage surface is rough and irregular
What do tendons connect? attach muscle to bone
What do ligaments connect? attach bone to bone
Describe Paget disease. osteitus deformans- excessive bone reabsorption and formation results in weaker bones
What is the most common benign bone tumor? osteochondroma
How does osteonecrosis occur? it is the death of bone segment due to interruption of blood supply
What is the milder form of muscular dystrophy that is characterized by children "walking their body" to get up? Becker muscular dystrophy
What is the name of the muscle disorder that is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects neuromuscular function of voluntary muscles? myasthenia gravis
Describe Ankylosing Spondylitis. fusion of inflamed vertebra, arthritis of sacroiliac joints; more common in males
Describe osteogenesis imperfecta. autosomal dominant pediatric d/o; genetic, defective development of connective tissue; brittle/fragile bones
Created by: lbl317537