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Geography Exam

Year 10 Geographical Terms

Aid Money and resources that are given or lent to poor or developing nations by wealthier developed nations
Defence The protection of a country’s borders, people and national interests and the promotion of peace and security
Migration The permanent movement of people between nations. Trade
Multilateral aid Financial assistance that is given by governments through international development banks or organisations
Sustainable development Development that meets the needs of today’s population without compromising the ability of following generations to meet their needs
Technical Assistance Experts in their fields who work in developing countries to educate and assist communities on the path towards development
Tied aid Aid given for specific purposes like buildings and services, which may be provided by the donor country or by companies within the donor country
Treaty An agreement between countries that is bound by international law
Untied aid Aid that the government of the receiving country can spend on goods and services from any country or organisation as they see fit
Humanitarian Concern for human welfare and development
G8 The Group of eight countries of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom and United States that represent about 65% of the world’s economy (the leaders of these countries hold a G8 summit or meeting every year
Gross National Income (GNI) Calculated as the total value of goods and services produced within a country plus income from other countries minus payments made to other countries
Governance The art of leading, management and decision-making in a country for the common good
Gross National Income per capita (GNI per capita) Calculated as the total value of goods and services produced within a country over a year plus income from other countries minus payments made to other countries
Landmine An explosive device which is placed in the ground and triggered by a vehicle, a person, or an animal
Reconnaissance An inspection of an area to gather military information
Sovereignty Complete independence and self-government
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations set up to promote development in the region
ADF the Australian Navy, Army and Air Force whose mission is to protect Australia and its national interests
Barriers to trade Things that hinder the process of trade such as tariffs, quotas, subsidies and regulations
Comparative advantage When one country can produce a good more efficiently than another
Free Trade The movement towards trade with no barriers
Foreign Exchange Financial transactions resulting from trade when money is drawn in one country to be paid in another
Merchandise Trade The movement of physical goods like cars, televisions and animal meat between countries
International Trade The movement of goods, services and ideas between countries
Primary Products Products from agricultural, fishing and mining activities that undergo no processing
Quota A limit on the number of items allowed to be imported into a country
Ratified When a trade agreement has been bought into law in a country through the legislative process
Subsidy A payment made by a government to producers of goods to help them meet their costs of production
Tariff A tax on an imported good imposed by the importing country to raise the price of the item and protect local industry
Trade liberalisation Freeing up trade through the removal of barriers to trade
Trade Sanction Restrictions of trade placed on nations who fail to meet trade obligations they have agreed to
Asylum-Seeker An individual who seeks refuge in a foreign country, usually due to religious or political persecution
Demography The study of human population characteristics and patterns
Emigrant Someone who leaves one country to settle in another
Immigrant A person who migrates to another country permanently
Infrastructure Facilities and systems that serve a country, city or area, including transport and communication systems, power plants, hospitals and schools
Reconciliation The process of understanding and building the relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians
Refugee A person who flees their country in search of refuge in times of war, famine, political oppression or religious persecution
Fertility Rate The average number of babies born to a woman during her reproductive years
Superannuation A pension-like program that is organised by employers for the benefit of their employees to ensure that they have enough money to fund their retirement
Suburbanisation Urban growth caused by the creation of new suburbs at the outer edges of the city
Temporary Protection Visa A visa to Australia for asylum-seekers who arrive in Australia without authorisation and are assessed by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship to be refugees, which allows them to stay a set amount of time
Isobar lines on a synoptic chart that join places of equal air pressure
Longitude The distance east or west of the Prime Meridian measured in degrees
El Niño The name that is given to unusually cool ocean currents of the east coast of Australia, which often lead to below-average rainfall in south-eastern Australia
Synoptic Chart A map showing the atmospheric conditions of air pressure which is used to make weather forecasts
Tropical Cyclone An intense tropical storm that develops over warm oceans between 5° and 20° north or south of the Equator
Tornado A rapidly rotating column of air extending down from cumulonimbus clouds in the atmosphere
Tsunami A large wave usually formed by undersea earthquakes and landslides
Drought Below-average rainfall for a prolonged period of time that affects food production and depletes industrial and domestic water supply
Flood A natural hazard that occurs when water inundates land that is usually dry
Earthquake A sudden movement in the Earth’s crust caused by movements of the continental plates, usually located at place boundaries, but can also be caused by intra-plate tension
Epicentre The point on the Earth’s surface directly above where an earthquake is focused
Natural Disaster When a natural hazard impacts on a community causing destruction of property and lives
Natural Hazard When the forces of nature combine to become destructive including tropical cyclones and storms, floods, bushfires, droughts, earthquakes, landslides and tsunamis
Community An identifiable group interacting on the basis of shared space and/or social organisation
Culture The values and customs of a particular country as expressed in the music, food, interests, religion and sport of that country
Median Age The age at which half the population is older and half is younger
Life Expectancy The expected number of years of survival of human beings in particular countries, states or areas
Natural Increase The number of births minus the number of deaths in a population
Net Overseas Migration The total permanent and long-term migration of people to Australia from other countries minus the long-term migration of people leaving Australia
Population The total number of people who live in a country, city, or any district or area
Population Density The number of people per square kilometre
Total Fertility Rate The average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime
Rural Decline The loss of population, employment and opportunities in rural areas
Rural-Urban Migration The process of people from country areas moving to urban areas to live
Ecological Dimension The way humans interact with the physical environment
Egalitarian Society A society where all people are equal
Spatial Dimension Where things are and why they are there
Primary Data Data that has been collected personally by a researcher
Secondary Data Information that has been collected by others, typically reported in print form
Ecological Sustainability Meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
Topography The shape of the land
Corrosion The action of salt on minerals like iron that are contained in rock, weakening the rock and making it more susceptible to erosion
Deposition The depositing of sand and rock particles caused by wind and wave action forming features such as beaches
Erosion The removal of rock and sand particles as a result of wind and wave action
Catchment An area drained by a river and its tributaries
Desalination The process of removing salt from seawater to produce drinking water
Land Degradation The deterioration of land resources
Salinity An increase in the amount or concentration of salts near the surface of soils to a point that the environment is degraded
Soil Erosion Soil loss due to the movement of topsoil by water and wind
Created by: HeslopA



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