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Skin

Advanced Patho EXAM 3

QuestionAnswer
List 3 primary skin lesions. Macule, papule and nodule
Describe a macule and give an example. spot, circumscribed, up to 1cm; i.e. cafe au lait, mongolian spots
Describe a papule and give an example. bump, palpable, <5mm in diameter; i.e. mole
Describe a nodule and give an example. like a papule but diameter=5mm to 2 cm; i.e. xanthoma
What is atopic dermatitis (eczema) and how does it occur/who is at risk? an itchy, inflammatory skin d/o with defined erythema with edema, vesicles and weeping at the acute stage and lichenification in the chronic stage; difficult to identify causative agent. High occurrence in kids less than 5 yrs
Describe the skin. has 2 layers: an outer epidermis and inner dermis, separated by a basement membrane
What is name of the major cell of the epidermis? keratinocytes
What cells give the skin its color? melanocytes; they release melanin.
What cells in the epidermis are responsible for its re-population? langerhans cells
True or false, the dermis is the connective tissue layer that JOINS the epidermis and SQ fat layer. False, it SEPARATES
What is lichenification? thickened, leathery and roughened skin characterized by prominent markers; caused by repeated rubbing and scratching
Define xerosis. dry skin
Definition: Skin d/o characterized by papules and plaques with silvery scale; unknown cause; can appear anywhere but popular spots include knees, elbows, lower back and scalp. what is psoriasis
Definition: A group of related diseases characterized by bullous eruptions, thought to be autoimmune reactions. what is pemphigus
What are the s/s of pemphigus? blisters on the skin and mucous membranes
What is "Rhus" dermatitis and what s/s does it produce? an allergy to plants, i.e. poison ivy, poison oak, etc. s/s appear within 24 hrs of contact; pruritis, erythema, vesicle formation
What is the best line of treatment for eczema? moisturizes and/or steroids
When assessing a melanoma, what acronym is used and what does it stand for? A, B, C, D Asymmetry border color diameter
What are the risk factors to skin cancer? smoking and sun exposure
What is the difference between basal cell carcinoma and melanoma? melanoma can be deadly; basal cell carcinoma are common growths that are mostly benign, pearly like appearance
The skin cancer that arises from keratinocytes due skin exposure to light is known as _____________ squamous cell carcinomas
A pigment disorder of the skin is known as? vitiligo aka leukoderma
What is the treatment for verrucae? aka warts; liquid nitrogen, cryotherapy and/or laser removal
What is the difference between Herpes simplex virus 1 and HSV 2? HSV1= above the waist (i.e. cold sore) HSV2= below the waist (i.e. genital warts)
How are fungal infections named? Tinea____________ location i.e. tinea capititis
What is the cause of impetigo? it is a bacterial infection caused by staph or strep
What happens if Syphillis is left untreated? if it goes to the 3rd stage, there can be cardiac involvement
What skin d/o has a characteristic butterfly rash on the face? lupus erythematosus
True or false, seborrheic dermatitis can be cured. False, it can not be cured but is treatable
A self-limiting skin disorder, characterized by shiny, white topped, purplish, polygonal papules on the wrist, ankles and trunk. lichen planus
What rash is seen in young persons, highest in spring and fall and its initial lesion is a herald patch on the neck or trunk? pityriasis rosea aka the christmas tree rash
Common in children, this infection is from bacteria that live in the top layers of the skin. Appears as red sores that turn into blisters, ooze, then crust over. impetigo
Why is it important to promptly treat lime disease? there are 3 stages and stage 2 can cause peripheral neuropathy, meningitis and involve the cardiac system; stage 3 can cause oligoarticular arthritis
What does Group A Beta Hemolytic strep cause? scarlet fever
What are the s/s of erythema multiforme? Target lesions caused by the centrifugal spread of red maculopapules with a purpuric, vesicular, or papular center. Mainly on hands, feet, and extensor surface of forearms and legs
A blister >5mm is known as what? bulla i.e. pemphigus
The characteristics of a mosquito bite are an example of what? a wheal
A small blister up to 5mm (i.e. herpes) is known as what type of skin lesion? vesicle
A lesion that can be benign or malignant and felt as a nodule is known as ________? a tumor
An acute localized inflammatory disease of dermatomal segment is known as? shingles
True or false, basal cell carcinoma metastasize. False, they do not.
Created by: lbl317537