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Advanced Patho EXAM 3

What is GERD? backflow of gastric contents into esophagus via LES (lower esophageal sphincter)
What are the s/s of GERD? heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, dysphagia
What are the risk factors for GERD? alcohol, smoking, caffeine, fatty foods
Define Barrett esophagus and why is it dangerous? Columnar tissue replaces normal squamous epithelium in distal esophagus; big risk for cancer
Why are bile and bile salts important to nutrition? bile salts are in bile, they aid in emulsifying dietary fats; bile aids in digestion of lipids and transports wastes products
Where bile metabolized and stored? Metabolized in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
What are the possible complications of liver failure? jaundice, encephalopathy, muscle wasting, hormone dysfunction, osteomalacia, esophageal varices
What are the causes of liver failure? there are a variety; sub categories include disorders of synthesis and storage functions and disorders of metabolic (glucose, proteins, lipoprotein cholesterol and bile salts) and excretory functions (amino acids, steroid hormones, drugs and bilirbuin)
What abnormal labs are common to find in liver failure? AAST/SGOT, ALT/SGPT, alkaline phosphates, bilirubin total and indirect, urobilinogen and GGT
What is kernicterus and how does it occur? brain injury (encephalopathy) as a result of hyper-bilirubin levels
What are the differences between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis? Crohns: affects submucosal, can involve the entire GI tract/skipping, rare rectal bleeding Ulcerative colitis: affects mucosal, is continuous, primarily affects rectum and left colon (distal colon), common rectal bleeding
What is Hirchsprung's disease? congenital d/o of large intestine; intrinsic nervous system of the colon is not working correctly resulting in ineffective peristalsis
What is Celiac disease? aka sprue, intolerance of gluten which is a protein found in wheat and wheat products
Describe diverticulum. plural form= diverticula, which are out pouchings of tissue in the colon where food can get stuck and become inflamed; this inflammation is known as diverticulitis
Describe hemorrhoids. aka piles; are swollen and inflamed veins in your anus and lower rectum
Which population is more vulnerable to Hepatitis E? children and pregnant women (can be fatal)
What is portal hypertension? Sluggish blood flow with increased pressure in portal circulation
What are the negative effects of portal hypertension? GI congestion, esophageal varices, hemorrhoids, ascites and bleeding from ruptured varices
What is the function of the gallbladder? stores 30-50mL of bile; terminates at the Ampulla of Vater
True or false, esophageal varices can be deadly. True
Which type of Hepatitis is spread via the oral/fecal route? Hepatitis A
Which type of Hepatitis is spread via sexual/parenteral contact or via perinatal infection? Hepatitis B
What is the most common cause of end stage liver disease? hepatitis C
How is Hepatitis C generally contracted? contaminated blood, i.e. blood transfusions
What other disease must be present in order for a person to have Hepatitis D? Hepatitis B
Where is Hepatitis E common? developing countries
How is Hepatitis E spread? oral/fecal route
True or false, prostaglandins damage the mucosal surface of the stomach. False, they help to protect it
How can ASA and NSAIDs affect the stomach? disrupt the mucosal surface resulting in ulcers, bleeding and even perforation if severe enough
How do broad spectrum antibiotics negatively affect the large intestine? disrupt the normal bacterial flora and allow other species to enter such as c. diff
Movement in the GI tract is controlled by what system? ANS (autonomic nervous system)
The Parasympathetic nervous system does what to GI activity? increases activity
The sympathetic nervous system does what to GI activity decreases activity
True or false, the GI tract is the smallest endocrine organ of the body. False, it's the largest
What are the 3 types of abdominal pain? visceral (stretching/inflammation, poorly localized) somatic (injury to structure) referred
What age should regurgitation be completely gone by (in a child)? 2 years
How is necrotizing enterocolitis in infants treated? surgical removal of affected area
What are 3 types of intestinal obstruction? volvulus, intussusception and mega colon
What are the 2 organ systems of the pancreas? endocrine and exocrine
What are the functions of the liver? digestive, endocrine, hematologic and excretory
What is hepatorenal syndrome? liver failure causes acute renal failure; with transplant, renal function returns to normal
What labs do you see in the AR disorder, Hereditary Hemochromotosis? increased plasma iron, transferrin saturation and serum ferritin
What is the treatment for Hereditary Hemochromatosis? weekly removal of blood, approximately 1 unit per week; cannot use this tainted blood
What is the name of the rare autosomal recessive disorder where excessive amounts of copper accumulate in the liver and organs? Wilson disease
In Wilson disease, what might you see around the cornea? Kayser-fleischer rings
Created by: lbl317537