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Pharm Unit 1 Review

QuestionAnswer
Uses of Anti-Histamines allergic rhinitis, insomnia, allergic reactions
Adverse reactions of Anti-Histamines Drowsiness, headache, thickening of bronchial secretions, urinary retention, GI effects.
Drug interactions of Anti-Histamines Sedative effect is increased with other CNS depressants.
Common Anti-Histamine medication Benadryl (diphenhydramine)
Uses of Antitussives Relief of overactive or unproductive cough
Adverse Reactions of Antitussives Drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, dry mouth, constipation
Drug interactions of Antitussives Increased sedative effect with CNS depressants
Common Antitussive medication codeine
Nursing implications of Antitussives Consider patient safety due to drowsiness. Only for short-term use due to risk of rebound and addiction
Uses of Asthma medications acute or chronic asthma, bronchitis, COPD
Adverse reactions of Asthma medications dysrhythmias, hypotension, tachycardia, restlessness, nausea
Drug interactions of Asthma medications Antidepressants, hypertension medications, digoxin and diuretics
Nursing Implications of Asthma medications Rinse patient's mouth after use. Smokers may need higher dosages. Monitor for signs of theophylline toxicity. Frequent use cause tolerance.
Uses of Decongestants Relief of nasal congestion due to allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection
Adverse reaction of Decongestants nervousness, nausea, dizziness, tachycardia, temporary increase in blood pressure
Contraindications of Decongestants cannot be given to infants and toddlers due to inadvertent overdose
Drug interactions of Decongestants other sympathomimetics, antidepressants, antihistamines, thyroxine. Use cautiously with patients on digoxin
Nursing Implications of Decongestants topical medications should not be used longer than 3-5 days. Monitor for adverse reactions
Uses of Expectorants Treatment of productive cough
Adverse Reactions of Expectorants GI upset, dizziness, headache, rash
Nursing Implications of Expectorants Increase fluid intake. Administer with food if GI upset occurs.
Patient Education & Anti-Histamines Do not take more than prescribed. Do not take while driving. Do not drink alcohol or take other sedative drugs. Keep out of reach of children.
Patient Education & Antitussives Take as prescribed. May cause drowsiness. Do not drink alcohol or take other sedative drugs. Change positions slowly. Take with food or milk if GI upset occurs.
Patient Education & Asthma medications Proper use of inhaler. Prevention of exercise-induced asthma attacks. Notify physician of adverse effects. Do not use at bedtime. Avoid drinks with large amounts of caffeine. Importance of serum blood levels.
Common Asthma medication epinephrine
Patient Education & Decongestants Avoid multiple OTC products. How to administer if taking by inhaler, drops, sprays, or jellies.
Patient Education & Expectorants Do not use for persistent cough. Increase fluid intake. Expect increased sputum. May cause drowsiness. Notify physician of adverse reactions.
Uses of Antivirals short-term treatment, long-term suppression, and treatment of recurrence of herpes simplex or zoster. Treatment of influenza.
Drug Interactions of Antivirals Consult drug handbook before administering to check for interactions.
Patient Education & Antivirals This medication reduces or suppresses symptoms but does not cure disease.
Uses of Antiretrovirals Slow the advance of AIDS infection. Prophylaxis for infants of HIV+ mothers and healthcare providers exposed to HIV.
Adverse Reactions of Antiretrovirals pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathies, mouth ulcers, rash, GI distress. Toxic to liver.
Drug Interactions with Antiretrovirals Other medications should not be taken at the same time as antiretrovirals.
Nursing Implications of Antiretrovirals Assess for opportunistic infections. Helper T lymphocyte count must be done prior to beginning medication.
Patient Education & Antiretrovirals Medication compliance is essential. Practice safe sex practice and standard precautions. Report peripheral neuropathy or pancreatitis immediately.
Uses of Antifungals Treatment of yeast-like or mold-like infections
Adverse Reactions of Antifungals nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
Drug interactions of Antifungals Prolonged corticosteroid therapy can cause severe superinfection. Alcohol consumption while taking antifungals cause severe reactions.
Nursing Implications of Antifungals Monitor closely for liver and renal toxicity. Assess for adverse effects. Severe nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea indicate overdose.
Patient Education & Antifungals Do not consume alcohol while taking antifungals. Continue medication until lab tests confirm resolution. Report nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bruising, sore throat or fever.
Uses of Antineoplastics Kill malignant cells and/or prevent further production of malignant cells.
Adverse Reactions of Antineoplastics nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, hair loss, bone marrow depression
Drug interactions with Antineoplastics Many interactions occur. Check drug handbook before administering.
Nursing Implications for Antineoplastics Nursing and pharmacological interventions needed to reduce adverse effects. Handle and dispose of medications carefully in special designated area. Specially trained oncology nurses administer. Lab and imaging studies evaluate effectiveness of treatment.
Patient Education & Antineoplastics Keep medication locked away from children and pets. Teach about medication side effects and ways to manage side effects. Hold ice in mouth, if unable to eat. Teach ways to minimize dehydration.
Use of Vancomycin Reserved for severe infections and infections that are antibiotic resistant
Adverse Reactions of Vancomycin Rash on upper body (red-man syndrome), flushing, hypotension
Use of Sulfonamides Usually used to treat acute and chronic UTIs. Treatment of ulcerative colitis and preoperative and postoperative treatment for bowel surgery.
Adverse reactions of Sulfonamides Headache, drowsiness, dizziness, photosensitivity, GI distress
Drug Interactions of Sulfonamides May increase the effect of oral anticoagulants, methotrexate, sulfonylureas, thiazide diuretics, phenytoin.
Nursing Implications of Sulfonamides Short-acting sulfonamides may have a loading dose ordered. Administer on an empty stomach with a full glass of water.
Patient education & Sulfonamides Stay out of sun due to photosensitivity. Increase fluids to prevent urine crystal formation. Notify physician if skin rash, blood in urine, bruises, nausea develop.
Uses of Aminoglycosides Treatment of serious aerobic gram-negative infections. Bowel sterilization before bowel surgery.
Adverse Reactions of Aminoglycosides nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, dizziness, ringing in ears, persistent headache
Drug Interactions of Aminoglycosides Use with vancomycin increases risk of nephrotoxicity. Ototoxicity is increased with aspirin, furosemide, ethacrynic acid.
Nursing Implications of Aminoglycosides For systemic infection, must be given IV. Always use IV infusion pump. Dosages are weight-based so accurate patient weight must be obtained. Obtain peak and trough levels and monitor closely.
Patient Education & Aminoglycosides Report signs of toxicity immediately. Teach importance of having lab and hearing tests done.
Uses of Macrolides Alternatives to penicillin for infections caused by penicillin-resistant bacteria.
Adverse Reactions of Macrolides Mild abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, superinfection
Drug Interactions of Macrolides Increase the action of oral anticoagulants, digoxin, and other drugs, which can lead to drug and kidney toxicity.
Nursing Implications of Macrolides Administer with food. Increase fluids to decrease chance of renal toxicity. Check for drug interactions before administering.
Patient Education & Macrolides Take with food. Increase fluids.
Uses of Tetracyclines Treatment of bacterial infections. Broad spectrum antibiotic
Adverse Reactions of Tetracyclines GI distress, photosensitivity, vertigo, superinfections
Contraindications of Tetracyclines Pregnant women and children under age 8, due to effect on bones and teeth
Drug Interactions of Tetracyclines Calcium supplements and dairy should not be consumed. Causes decreased effectiveness of antibiotic.
Nursing Implications of Tetracyclines Doxycycline is well tolerated by elderly and those with reduced renal function. Administer with water on an empty stomach. Monitor for superinfections.
Patient education & Tetracyclines Avoid spending time in sun, due to photosensitivity. Teach not to consume dairy or calcium supplements while taking medicaiton.
Suffix of Tetracyclines -cycline
Uses of Penicillins Treat bacterial infections. Broad spectrum antibiotic
Adverse Reactions of Penicillins Many. Neuropathy, skin eruptions, GI distress, anemia, blood dyscrasias.
Allergic Reactions of Peniciilins Rash, hives, edema in skin and mucous membranes, laryngeal edema, anaphylaxis
Drug Interactions of Penicillins Decreases effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Use with erythromycin or tetracyclines may decrease effectiveness of penicillin.
Nursing Implications of Penicillins Draw blood cultures before beginning antibiotic therapy. Ask patient history of medication allergies. Observe patient for a reaction for 30 minutes after administration before sending home.
Patient Education & Penicillins Teach women to use back-up method of contaception. Educate about allergic reactions and to report immediately. Teach to complete full course of medication.
Common Drug Name of Penicillins penicillin
Suffix of Penicillins -cillin
Created by: ms_molly