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sociology ch12

Difference between sex and gender Sex is biological and gender is socially learned expectations which may begin as soon as the sex of a fetus is known.
Biological determinism Men have more testosterone so they're more manly
Hermaphroditism Condition caused by irregularities in the process of chromosome formation.
Gender socialization Men and women learn the expectations of their sex
Agents of gender socialization family, schools, religion, media
Family They might encourage a boy to be tough or a girl to be gentle. ex. give only boy toys or girl toys
Schools Teachers have different expectations of each gender. Boys get more attention. Books communicate gender expectations
Religion Authority of men over women. Women leaders have declined
Media Men outnumber women on TV. Women are seen as young sex objects, they are thin and reinforce the ideal body type
Prices of conformity Men take steroids to be more muscular while women starve themselves to be skinnier. Men are also violent and powerful over women and may not show any emotions.
Patriarchy Men have power over women in a certain group such as religion or workplace
Overt discrimination towards women Men keep power in a subtle way
Human capital theory Assumes that the economic market is fair and competitive wages rely on the work habits of an individual.
Dual Labor Market Theory Men and women earn different wages bc they tend to work in different segments of the work force.
Primary market for jobs Jobs are stable, good wages and opportunities
Secondary jobs Low wages, constant job turn over, poor conditions, etc.
Informal Sector Greater wage inequality, no benefits, little or no employees.
Which jobs do women tend to take? Secondary while men take primary.
Functionalism theory on gender Genders are mixed roles in society. Men are instrumental while women are expressive
Conflict theory on gender Women are disadvantaged by power, economic instability, and political/social systems due to males.
Symbolic interaction theory on gender Theoretical perspective that interprets gender as something accomplished through the ongoing social interactions of people. People produce gender by what's interpreted from their social interactions.
Feminist theory Beliefs and actions that support justice, fairness, equality for all women regardless of differences. 30-40% of women
Created by: Chelseagirl2508