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# Enviro. 6

Population Distribution How individuals are distributed with respect to one another. Either: Random Uniform Clumped
Density Dependent factors the size of the population will influence an individual’s probability of survival. Density-dependent factors include: For terrestrial plants: water and soil nutrients. For animals: food, water, and nesting sites.
Density Independent Factors the size of the population has no effect on the individual’s probability of survival. Density-independent factors include: Hurricanes, tornados, floods, fires, volcanic eruptions, environmental temperatures.
Growth Rate the number of offspring an individual can produce in a given time period, minus the deaths of the individual or offspring during the same period.
Intrinsic Growth Rate under ideal conditions, with unlimited resources, the maximum potential for growth (denoted as r) for a population
The Exponential Growth Model the intrinsic growth rate for a population (r), and current number of reproducing individuals (N0), That is, we can use the exponential growth model to estimate a population’s future size (Nt) after a period of time (t) has passed: Nt = N0ert
Logistic Growth when a population whose growth is initially exponential, but slows as the population approaches the carrying capacity.
Carrying Capacity is the limit of how large a population can be sustained by the limiting resources, especially food. (K in equation)
K-selected Species the population of a species that grows slowly until it reaches the carrying capacity.
r-selected species the population of a species that grows quickly, and is often followed by overshoots and die-offs.
Species Interactions Competition Predation Mutualism Commensalism
Competitive exclusion principle two species competing for the same limiting resources cannot coexist. This can lead to resource partitioning.
Predation the use of one species as a resource by another species.
True Predators kill their prey
Herbivores consume plants as prey
Parasites live on or in the organism they consume. If they cause disease, they are pathogens.
Parasitoids lay eggs inside other organisms
Mutualism A type of interspecific interaction where both species benefit.
Commensalism a type of relationship in which one species benefits but the other is neither harmed nor helped.
Symbiotic relationships two species live in close association. Commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism are all examples of symbiotic relationships.
Keystone species : a species that plays a role in its community that is far more important than its relative abundance might suggest; they are in small numbers
Primary succession occurs on surfaces that are initially devoid of soil.
Secondary succession occurs in areas that have been disturbed but have not lost their soil.
Aquatic succession ex: a pond eventually turning into soil
Factors that determine species richness Latitude:species richness declines. Time:older habitats show more variety of species. Habitat size and distance:size of the habitat and distance from the colonizing species affects the number and types of species.
Created by: abuontempo