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6.1 Properties

Chemistry Chap 6

Solution homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances
solute the componment of solution that is present in lesser quantity
solvent the solution component present in the largest quantity
Aqueous solution solution where the solvent is water
This can be liquid as well as solids and gases Solutions
Air oxygen and several trace gases are dissolved in the gaseous solvent, nitrogen
Alloys brass and other homogeneous metal mixtures in the solid state
What are the general properties of liquid solution clear, transparent, no visible particle May be colored or colorless Electrolytes are formed from Nonelectrolytes do not dissociate Volumes of solute and solvent are not additive solutes that are soluble ionic compounds
Colloidal suspension contains solute particles which are not uniformly distributed
Colloidal Suspension properties Due to larger size of particles (1nm - 200 nm) Appears identical to solution from the naked eye Smaller than 1 nm, have solution Larger than 1 nm, have a precipitate
Tyndall Effect the ability of a colloidal suspension to scatter light
Tyndall Effect examples See a haze when shining light through the mixture
Solutions: light passes right through without scattering
Light as haze, scatters light colloidal suspension
no haze solution
Solubility - how much of a particular solute can dissolve in a certain solvent at a specified temperature
Factors which affect solubility: Polarity of solute and solvent Temperature Pressure
Pressure Usually has no effect If solubility is of gas in liquid, directly proportional to applied pressure
Temperature Increase in temperature usually increases solubility
Polarity of solute and solvent The more different they are, the lower the solubility
Saturated solution - a solution that contains all the solute that can be dissolved at a particular temperature
Supersaturated solution - contains more solute than can be dissolved at the current temperature
How is saturation done Heat solvent, saturate it with solute then cool slowly Sometimes the excess will precipitate out If it doesn’t precipitate, the solution will be supersaturated
Henry’s law – the number of moles of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid
Created by: julshock