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First Aid Qs/Notes


Coagulative necrosis is what? Is typically seen in hypoxic environments (e.g. myocardial infarction, infarct of the spleen). Cell outlines remain after cell death and can be observed by light microscopy.
Liquefactive necrosis is what? Is usually associated with cellular destruction and pus formation (e.g. pneumonia). This is typical of bacterial or, sometimes, fungal infections because of their ability to stimulate an inflammatory reaction. Curiously, ischemia (re
Caseous necrosis is what? Is a specific form of coagulation necrosis typically caused by mycobacteria (e.g. tuberculosis). It can be considered a combination of coagulative and liquefactive necroses.
Fatty necrosis results from? results from the action of lipases on fatty tissues (e.g. acute pancreatitis, breast tissue necrosis).
Fibrinoid necrosis is caused by what and what is it marked by? Is caused by immune-mediated vascular damage. It is marked by deposition of fibrin-like proteinaceous material in arterial walls, which appears smudgy and eosinophilic on light microscopy.
What are indicators or irreversible cell injury? 1. Plasma membrane damage 2. Lysosomal rupture 3. Ca++ influx --> oxidative phosphorylation 4. Nuclear pyknosis, karyolysis (nuclear fragmentation), karyorrhexis (DNA fragmentation) 5. Mitochondrial permeability
What is Grade, with regard to tumors? Degree of cellular differentiation based on histologic appearance of the tumor. Usually graded I-IV based on degree of differentiation and number of mitoses per high-power field; charater of tumor itself.
What is Stage, with regard to tumors? Degree of localization/spread based on site and size of primary lesion, spread to regional lymph nodes, presence of metastases; spread of tumor in a specific patient.
Does grade or stage have more prognostic value? Stage usually has a more prognostic value than grade.
TNM staging system T = size of Tumor N = Node involvement M = Metastases
Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) also called sideropenic dysphagia is a disorder linked to severe, long-term iron deficiency anemia, which causes swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) due to web-like membranes of tissue growing
Paget's disease or osteitis deformans, is a chronic disorder that typically results in enlarged and deformed bones. The excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue that occurs with Paget's disease can cause bone to weaken, resulting in bone pain, arthritis, deformit
CEA can be used as a tumor marker for? 1. Colorectal and Pancreatic cancers (~70%) 2. Gastric and breast carconomas
What is choriocarcinoma ? A malignant and aggressive cancer, usually of the placenta. It is characterized by early hematogenous spread to the lungs. It belongs to the far end of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a subset of germ cell tumor
What are psammoma bodies where are they seen? 1. They are laminated, concentric, calcific spherules. 2. They are seen in 1. Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid 2. Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary 3. Meningioma 4. Malignant mesothelioma
What are the primary tumors that metastasize to the brain? " Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia" 1. Lung 2. Breast 3. Skin 4. Kidney 5. GI
What are the primary tumors that metastasize to the liver? "Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Begining with Liver" Colon > Stomach > Pancreas > Breast > Lung
Created by: alphaladai



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