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GI System

What is a polyp? A small tumor on a stem attachment.
Define secretion The substance produced by glandular organs
Where are the taste buds located? the tongue
What is the layman's term for mastication? Chewing
What are the 2 types of digestion? Mechanical and chemical
What is the layman's term for throat? Pharynx
Define esophagus The muscular tube posterior to the trachea extending from the pharynx to the stomach.
What is peristalsis? The wavelike movement of the GI tract to move the contents along.
Where does bile come from? The liver.
What is the purpose of bile? Helps in the emulsification of fats so they can be absorbed.
What occurs when peristalsis slows down? Constipation
What are the 7 functions of the liver? Carbohydrate metabolism, Lipid metabolism, protein metabolism, detoxifies and excretes drugs and alcohol, excretes bilirubin, stores Vitamins & minerals, Activation of Vitamin D.
What are the fat soluble vitamins? A, D, E & K
What does the gall bladder do? Stores the bile.
What are the 3 parts of the stomach (in order) Cardiac spincter, body, pyloric sphincter
What is chyme? The product of food and gastric juices in the stomach.
What is secreted by the stomach? HCl acid.
What does the stomach absorb? Very little... some meds, ASA (aspirin), some water.
Where is the vomiting center located? The medulla oblongata
What is the function of the pancreas? Produces insulin, enzymes break down carbs and proteins.
What is the function of villi? Helps mix the chyme in the small intestines so that it can be better absorbed.
Where does most of the nutrient absorption occur? Small intestines
What are the sections of the small intestines? Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
Where is most of the water absorbed from? Large Intesting (colon)
What are the 4 regions of the colon? Cecum, colon, rectum & anus
Where is the appendix located? At the beginning of the cecum.
What is the function of the GI system? Ingest and prepare food for use by the body & excretion of waste
What are some concerns in the aging regarding the GI system? Need for calories decreases, but nutritional needs remain the same or increases. Decrease secretory mechanism, Loss of strength/tone in muscular tissue, diminished pain response, slower peristalsis, decreased appetite.
How much fluid intake is recommended in the elderly? 2000-3000cc/day
What does fiber do in the digestive system? Hold water in the wastes in the colon and makes the stool softer.
If a pt is on bedrest, how often should we reposition (turn) them? q 2hr
What are characteristics of normal stool? light to dark brown, soft, formed, Frequency TID to QOD.
What are characteristics of abnormal stool? Bloody, mucous, black, green, unusual smell, undigested food, very large or small or pencil shaped, liquid, hard
What are nursing responsibilities regarding the GI tract? Maintain privacy, notify charge nurse if no BM x2days or abnormal, Document all BM.
What is an impaction? A hard mass of stool that forms in the bowel and cannot be passed normally. Thick liquid stools is often present.
What is the layman's term for hemorrhoids? Piles
What is constipation? passage of unusually dry, hard stools.
What are some things that can lead to constipation? Bedrest or limited activity, inadequate fld intake, lack of fiber, interruption of routine, medications, depression.
What can the doctor order for abnormal bowel function? meds, enema, colostomy/ileostomy
What are the different ostomy locations and what is the consistency of stool at each location? Ascending- fld-semifld; Transverse-mushy; Descending-semimushy-solid; Sigmoid-formed
What are some CNA observations when caring for a stoma? redness/irritation around stoma, leakage, bleeding?
Can a CNA care for a colostomy? If so, are there any exceptions? A CNA may only care for an established colostomy, never a new one.
What is the term for stomach pain? gastralgia
What is the term for vomiting? emesis
What is the function of the epiglottis? To prevent food/flds from entering the trachea.
Define: cholecystectomy Removal of GB
What part of the small intestines does the food enter into? duodenum
What part of the large intestines does the food enter into? Cecum
In the stomach, the food exits through: the pyloric sphinctor
Where is HCl acid found? stomach
What can a CNA do to help the resident maintain normal bowel function? Encourage activity, encourage flds, provide fiber.
What foods are high in fiber? Prunes, bran, fresh fruits and vegetables
What can result from decreased saliva production? decreased appetite
Define appendicitis inflammation of the appendix.
Created by: HerndonFON