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Chapter 3 Quiz

Essentials of Radiation Biology and Protection 2nd Edition

QuestionAnswer
Undifferentiated, precursor, or stem cells are other names for: Immature Cells
Cells which are considered highly radiosensitive include: Lymphocytes, Spermatagonia, Erythroblasts, and Intestinal Crypt Cells
What is considered to be the most radiosensitive phases of the cell cycle? G1 into early S-Phase
What are considered to be the most radioresistant phases of the cell cycle? Mid-to Late S-phase
What is considered to be the most radiosensitive part of a cell? Nucleus
Cell death which occurs before mitosis is termed: Interphase Death
Chromosome produced radiation damage can be analyzed during which portion of the cell cycle? Metaphase
What will affect cell response to radiation? Linear Energy Transfer(LET), Relative Biologic Effectiveness(RBE), Oxygen Enhancement Ratio(OER)
What is a measure of the energy transferred to material as an ionizing particle travels through it? This measure is used to quantify the effects of ionizing radiation on biological specimens. Linear Energy Transfer(LET)
What is the measure of the capacity of a specific ionizing radiation to produce a specific biological effect, expressed relative to a reference radiation, such as radium gamma rays or 200-volt x-rays Relative Biologic Effectiveness(RBE)
What refers to the enhancement of therapeutic or detrimental effect of ionizing radiation due to the presence of oxygen? Oxygen Enhancement Ratio(OER)
The breakdown of water using radiation is termed: Radiolysis
An uncharged molecule that contains a single unpaired electron in its outermost shell, which makes it chemically unstable and highly reactive is termed: Free Radical
The primary effect of irradiating macromolecules in vitro include: Main-Chain Scission, Cross-Linking, Point Lesions
What occurs when the thread or backbone of a long-chain molecule is broken, resulting in numerous smaller molecules: Main-Chain Scission
What creates a stickiness on a macromolecule, causing it to connect to another macromolecule, or to another section of the same molecule Cross-Linking
Irradiation of macromolecules may result in disturbance of single chemical bonds, which create molecular lesions, also known as: Point Lesions
At low radiation doses, most cellular radiation damage is the result of: Point Lesions
At the doses received in diagnostic radiology, only _____ types of chromosomal aberrations are seen: Single-Hit
What is said to occur when an original ionizing event occurs directly on that macromolecule,e.g. DNA: Direct Interaction
What occurs if the initial ionizing incident takes place on a distant noncritical molecule, which then transfers the ionization of energy to another molecule? Indirect Interaction
hat is most commonly acted upon directly by ionizing radiation to produce indirect effects? Water
A graphical representation of observed effects compared with radiation dose is termed: Dose-Response Relationship(curve)
A graphical representation of the relationship between radiation dose and observed response, in which any dose may have a potential effect, and there is a direct relationship between dose and effect: Linear Dose-Response Curve
On a dose-response curve, the point where radiation begins to produce an effect is known as the: Threshold
Nonthreshold Assumes that any radiation dose produces an effect
According to the target theory, what is considered to be the critical target in the cell? DNA
Which portion of the cell survival curve proves that some damage must accumulate before death can occur? Shoulder
What is considered to be most radiosensitive? Fetus
How does oxygen retention affect cell radiosensitivity? Increases Radiosensitivity
What is used to describe cell damage from radiation that is not sufficient to kill the cell? Sublethal Dose
Why is free radical formation considered such a threat to humans? Free radicals have been observed to produce toxic effects
Of the stages of accumulate , which is the most radiosensitive? Telophase
As Linear Energy Transfer(LET) increases, how is Relative Biologic Effectiveness(RBE) affected? With an increase in LET, RBE also increases
The type of irradiation damage most likely to cause abnormalities in base sequences, and thus cell mutation, would be? Base Damage
The term _____ is used to describe the effects of radiation on cells that are adjacent to those directly affected by radiation: Bystander Effects
Created by: Dallas1856