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Pedes: Chapter 37

TCC Pediatric Nursing from Wong Maternal Child

At what age would a child be able sit through meals, prefer to feed self & finger foods, able to grasp cup with thumb and forefinger, tilt cup rather than head? 15 months
What age described: Appetite decreases. Improved control of spoon. Holds cup with both hands, spills less often 18 months
At what age: Appetite fair to moderate. Clearly defined likes and dislikes. Accepts no help. 24 months
At what age: Refusals and dislikes less evident. May hold cup & spoon like an adult. 30 months
What age range is defined as toddler? 12-36 months
What is the average weight increase of a toddler? 4-6 lbs/ year
When should the birth weight be quadrupled? 2.5 years
What is the average height increase of a toddler? 3"/ year
Toddler growth is _____, rather than linear. step-like (in spurts of growth)
What is acceptable visual acuity for a toddler? 20/40
When does a toddler develop voluntary control of elimination (sphincter control)? 18- 24 months
What are some (3) common health issues with toddlers? Upper respiratory infections, otitis media, and tonsillitis
At what age can a child throw a ball? by 18 months
At what age does a child have marked improved manual dexterity? 12-15 months
At what age does a child have marked improved coordination? between 2-3 years
What Erickson stage is child in during toddlerhood? autonomy VS shame & doubt
What is ritualism (define)? Follow routines that make rituals of even simple tasks
Define dawdling: Toddler is attempting to decide between following the wishes of the caregiver or asserting independence and following personal desires
Toddler's age of negativism: Assertion of individuality rather than intention to _____. disobey
What Piaget/cognitive stage is a toddler in? sensorimotor and preconceptual phase
At what age can a child recognize gender/sexual differences? by 2 years
Define parallel play. (Common during toddlerhood.) Plays alongside another child, but not with them.
What are some toys that help develop fine motor skills (at toddlerhood)? thick crayons, finger paints, puzzles
True or False: Sharing should not be an issue until later toddlerhood. TRUE
Discipline or Punishment: Penalizing someone for wrong-doing PUNISHMENT
Discipline or Punishment:To train or instruct to produce a particular behavior pattern DISCIPLINE
Discipline or Punishment:used to promote moral or mental improvement or self-control DISCIPLINE
Which sphincter develops first? rectal sphincter
Toilet training seldom occurs before ____ months. 18-24 (months)
What are some clothing options to help toddlers dressing themselves? Roomy clothes with easy buttons, large smooth zippers or Velcro
___ are the leading cause of deaths of children ages 1-4 years. Accidents
Many deaths from MVA’s can be prevented by ____. proper use of restraints/ child safety seats.
Most _____ systems relatively mature by the end of toddlerhood. physiologic
What "pattern of habit" can provide a sense of comfort & security? ritualism
Define the preconceptual phase. Transition between self-satisfying behavior & socialized relationships
At what age does the preconceptual phase begin? 2 years
What are some special considerations regarding body image with toddlers? refer to body parts by name & Avoid negative labels about physical appearance
What are some aspects of play that a toddler exhibits? Parallel play, imitation of people around them, domestic mimicry, "play-house"
Some aspects of physical development in toddlers? Teeth continue to erupt especially molars, growth has slowed considerably, mobility & communication improves, all senses increase in development, learns to stand & walk alone
In toddlerhood, does the child understand fully the concept of time? No, concept is still embyonic.
True of False: If a toddler plays with their genitalia, their caregivers should be concerned. FALSE: exploration of genitalia is common
Toddlers develop a sense of independence: what are some aspects of this? they tend to test their independence limits, sense of self grows, these independent skills include feeding, dressing, & playing by self, in the process of developing these skills they may become tyrannical, strong-willed, or volatile
A toddler must have _____ control before s/he can be fully toilet trained. voluntary
A toddler should be able to remain dry for at least ___ hours. 2
Complete control of the bladder (especially overnight) may not occur until ___ years. 4-5
What are some things caregivers can do to reduce complications with a new baby in the family? intense preparation should be just before baby is born, refer to baby as OURS not MOMMY'S, allow sibling to participate in care as much as possible, give extra TLC to toddler, expect regression, difficulty, & jealousy
True or False: Regular dental care is not important for toddlers. FALSE: regular dental care is important & a low cariogenic diet should be followed, along with flouride & plaque removal
What is the "phenomenon" called when a toddler has a decreased appetite? physiologic anorexia
How much sleep should the toddler receive in their 1st year of toddlerhood? 12-14 hours
How much sleep should a toddler need by age 3 (end of toddlerhood)? 10-12 hours
___ are an important part of bedtime. Give an example. Rituals. Reading, bathtime, a snack, etc.
FACT: Toddlerhood is an intense period of exploration.
What are some increased aspects of language for toddlers? increased ability to understand words, increased level of comprehension, speak first few words
What are some considerations regarding discipline of a toddler? limits should be communicated, set, & agreed upon by caregivers; consistency & timing are important; use positive wording
Toddlers should both have a preliminary dental visit & begin brushing their own teeth? 2 years
Created by: RBJohn