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NUR 100 Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus

TermDefinition
Type 1 the result of pancreatic islet cell destruction and no insulin production
Type 2 insulin resistance with a defect in compensatory insulin secretion
Three types of cells in pancreas Alpha Beta Delta
Alpha cells Produce glucagon breakdown of glycogen in the liver
Glucoagon Decrease glucose oxidation Increase blood glucose levels
Glycogenolysis Breakdown of liver glycogen
Gluconeogenesis Formation of glucose from fats and proteins
Beta cells Secretes insulin movement of glucose across cell membrane thus decreases blood glucose
Delta cells Produce somatostatin Neurotransmitter inhibits production of glucagon and insulin
Pathophysiology of Diabetes Defects in secretion of insulin Defects in action of insulin Or both problems
Characteristics of Type 1 Polyuria Polydipsia Polyphagia
Characteristics of Type 2 Decrease in insulin available Cellular resistance to insulin activity Hyperglycemia occurs slowly over time
Treatment of DM Weight loss Diet Excercise Hypoglycemic agents when needed
Hemoglobin A1C Measures levels of glycosylated hemoglobin
Types of Insulin Rapid acting Short acting Intermediate acting Long acting
Sulfonylureas (TYPE2) Increase insulin production Glipizide (Glucotorl) Glyburide (Diabeta)
Meglitinides (TYPE2) Stimulate pancreas
Biguanides (TYPE2) Reduces glucose production in the liver
Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors (TYPE2) slow the digestion of carbohydates in the small intestine
D-Phenylalanine (Amino Acid) Derivative Stimulates rapid and short insulin secretion from the pancreas
Hypoglycemia Tired Irritability Restless Excessive hunger Diaphoresis Depression
Created by: Gguillen4754