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Kaplan Qs

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QuestionAnswer
cefuroxamine, what is it and what is it used for? second-generation cephalosporin, which can be used to treat lower respiratory infections and urinary tract infections, as well as otitis media and gonorrhea.
how does cefuroxamine work? It inhibits cell wall synthesis of bacteria by binding to penicillin-binding proteins, which are transmembrane proteins that produce cross-linkages in peptidoglycan layer.
How do aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin) work? They irreversibly bind to the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis
How do Lincosamides (e.g., clindamycin) work? They irreversibly bind to the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes, suppressing bacterial protein synthesis. Not that macrolides (e.g., erythromycin) reversibly bind to the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosome.
How do sulfonamides work? They competitively inhibit Para-aminobenzoic acid (PBA) and so inhibiting folic acid biosynthesis required for bacterial growth
S. aureus can evade host immune response by? 1. Protien A: binds Fc region of Ig 2. IgA protease: enzyme cleaves IgA. 3. Polysaccharide capsules also inhibit phagocytosis
MeninGococci ferment? Maltose and Glucose
Gonococci ferment? Glucose
silver stain fungi, Legionella
India ink Cryptococcus neoformans
Ziehl-Neelsen stain Acid-fast bacteria
Giemsa's stain 1. Borellia 2. Plasmodium 3. trypanosomes 4. Chlamydia
aminOglycosides are ineffective against anaerobes because these antibiotics require Oxygen to enter into bacterial cells.
obligate intracellular bacteria 1. Richettsia 2. Chlamydia *These bugs can't make their own ATP
Quelling test if bacteria have a capsule they will swell when specific anticapsular antisera is added
Some Gram + spore forming bacteria include: Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium perfringens, C. tetani. Other spore formers include: B. cereus, C. botulinum
Beta-hemolytic bacteria include: 1. S. aureus 2. Strep. pyogenes 3. Strep. agalactiae 4. Listeria monocytogenes
Signs of rheumatic fever 1. Subcutaneous nodules 2. Polyarthritis 3. Erythema marignatum 4. Chorea 5. Carditis
Staphylococcus epidermidis can cause what? Infects prosthetic devices and catheters. It is a component of skin flora; contaminates blood cultures.
Lysteria monocytogenes can cause? 1. amonionitis, septicemia, and spontaneous abortion in pregnant women 2. granulomatous infantiseptica 3. meningitis (in neonates ain immunocompramised) 4. mild gastroenteritis in healthy individuals
Actinomyces (looks like a fungus but is actually a gram positive anaerobe) can cause what? Oral/facial abcesses that may drain through sinus tracts in skin
Penicillin G and gram - bugs Gram-negative outer membrane later inhits the entry of penicillin G and vancomycin.
Enterobacteriaceae family include 1. E. coli 2. Salmonella 3. Shigella 4. Kebsiella 5. Enterobacter 6. Serratia 7. Proteus **They all have a capsule (K antigen), O antigen, flagellar antigen (H antigen), and ferment glucose
Klebsiella Red currant jelly sputum
cAMP inducers 1. V. cholera-activates Gs --> rice water diarrhea 2. Pertussis toxin: permanently disables Gi --> whooping cough 3. E.col- heat-labile toxin 4. Bacillus anthracis- edema factor is itself an adenylate cyclase
The Spirochetes include? 1. Borelia (big size) 2. Leptospira 3. Treponema
Lyme disease "Expanding bull's eye"
Lyme disease clinical presentation "BAKE a Key Lyme pie: Bell's palsy Arthritis (mono- and poly-arthritis) Kardiac block Erythema magrans
What do you treat Lyme disease with? Doxycycline
What are the stages of Lyme diseasse? Stage 1: erythema chonicum migrans, flulike symptoms Stage 2: neurologic and cardiac manifestations Stage 3: chronic monoarthritis and migratory polyarthritis
Argyll Robertson pupil Pupil constricts with accommodation but is not reactive to light. Associated with tirtiary syphilis. "Prostitute's pupil, accomodates but does not react."
Only bacterial membrane containing cholesterol is? Mycoplasma pneumoniae *These bacteria do not have a cell wall and therefore penicillin is NOT effective against them
Aspergillus fumigatus Can cause: lung cavity aspergilloma ("fungus balls"), invasive aspergiliosis (esp. in imm.comp). Mold with septate hyphae that branch at a V-shaped (45 degree) angle. Not dimorphic
Toxoplasma gondii: 1. Disease and 2. Treatment? 1. Disease: brain abcess in HIV patients, birth defects (ring-enhancing brain lesions) 2. Treatment: sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine
Segmented viruses include? "BOAR" 1. Bunyaviruses 2. Orthomyxoviruses 3. Arenaviruses 4. Reovirus
Yellow fever 1. Flavivirus 2. transmitted by Aedes mosquitos 3. Symptoms: high fever, black vomitus, and jaundice 4. Lab: Councilman bodies (acidophilic inclusions) may be seen in liver
PaRaMyxovirus 1. Parainfluenza (croup) 2. RSV (bronchiolitis in babies; Rx rifavirin) 3. Rubeola (Measles)- rash spread head to toe; Koplik sopts (red with blue-white center) 4. Mumps
The most common and second most common couses of UTIs in young, sexually active women are? 1. E. coli 2. Staph. saprophyticus
The two most common causes of nosocomial infections are? E.coli (UTI) S. aureus (wound infection)
Antibiotics that are bacteriostatic? "ECSTaTiC": Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Sulfamethoxazole, Trimethoprim, Tetracyclines, and Chloramphenicol
Antibiotics that are bactericidal? "Very Finely Proficient At Cell Murder": Vancomycin, Fluoroquinolones, Penicillin, Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Metronidizole
Antipseudomonals are? "Takes Care of Psuedomonas": Ticarcillin Carbenicillin Piperacillin
What do you treat gonorrhea with? Ceftriaxone
Antibiotics that inhibit the 30S ribosome subunit? Aminoglycosides (bactericidal) streptomycin gentamicin tobramycin amikacin) Tetracyclins (bacteriostatic)
Antibiotics that inhibit the 50S ribosome subunit are? "CCELL": Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin (bacteriostatic) Erythromycin (bacteriostatic) Lincomycin (bacteriostatic) Linezolid (variable)
NK cells are activated by what cytokine? IL-12 (made by B cells and macrophages)
What are the chemotactic factors for Neutrophils? IL-8 (made by macrophages) and C5a
What are the symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever? 1. Rash on pals and soles (migrating to wrists, ankles, then trunk). 2. headache 3. fever * endemic to East Coast
Palm and sole rash is seen in what conditions? 1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever 2. Syphilis 3. Coxsackievirus
Difference in rash appearance between rickettsial rash (Rocky Mount. Spot. Fever) and typhus rash (endemic(R. typhi)/epidemic typus (R. prowazekii))? "Rickettsia on the wRists, Typhus on the Trunk." Rickettsial rash starts on hands and feet vs. typhus rash starts centrally and spreads out.
Enzymes that are inhibitors of beta-lactamase and are given in combination with penicillins to create a beta-lactamase resistant combination. 1. Clavulanic Acid 2. Sulbactam 3. Tazobactam
Created by: alphaladai