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GI and Liver

Dysphagia Difficulty swallowing. Main clinical consequences can be malnutrition and aspiration
Esophageal Pain Pyrosis (heartburn). Reflux of gastric contents (acid) into esophagus. Pain in the middle of the chest. Mimics Angina Pectoris.
Diarrhea Increase in frequency & fluidity of bowel movements. Acute: infection, stress, food allergy. Chronic: Greater than 4 weeks.
Constipation Small, infrequent, or difficult bowel movements. Fewer than 3 stools per week.
GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Backward flow of gastric contents into esophagus. May or may not produce symptoms.
Hiatal Hernia Cause not understood. Defect in the diaphragm that allows a portion of the stomach to pass into the thorax.
Gastritis Inflammation of stomach lining. May be acute: alcohol, Aspirin, Tobacco. Chronic: Helicobacter pylori.
Gastroenteritis Irritation of stomach & small intestinal lining. Acute: bacteria "travelers" Chronic: GI disorders
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) Disorders of GI tract caused by the action of acid & prepsin. Involves interaction of pepsin acid, & mucosal protective agents. Esophagus, duodenum or jejunum.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) Inflammatory disease of the mucosa of the rectum & colon. Affects the epithelial layer. Cause is poorly understood. Abdominal pain, bloody, mucous-filled diarrhea.
Crohn Disease (CD) Inflammation of the GI tract that extends through ALL layers of the intestinal wall. Constant abdominal pain.
Enterocolitis: Pseuomembranous Colitis Inflammation & necrosis of large intestine. Also know as antibiotic associate colitis. Clostridium difficile. Diarrhea (often boody)
Appendicitis Most common cause of emergent abdominal surgery. Caused by obstruction. Inflammation of vermiform appendix.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Disorder of Motility Affects up to 20% US population. May be life altering. Clear definition not agree on. Alternating Diarrhea/constipation, Abdominal pain, No other defined pathology identified.
Colon polyps Any protrusion into the lumen of the GI tract. Refers to a benign or not-yet-malignant lesion. Treatment. Removal upon identification.
Colon Cancer Cancer that depends on location/size. Right side- black, tarry stools. Left side- obstruction, abdominal cramping. Rectum- Change in bowel habits.
Bile Formed in the liver then modified & stored in the gallbladder & bile ducts. Normally composed of water, electrolytes, & organic solutes. Low protein content.
Cholelithiasis Supersaturation of bile with cholesterol. Fancy word for Gallstones. Females
Acute pancreatitis Acute inflammation of pancreas. Usually an obstruction of pancreatic duct by a stone or other cause.
Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic inflammatory lesions within the pancreas. Destruction of endocrine & exocrine parenchyma. weeks to months persist
Jaundice Yellow green straining of tissues by bilirubin. Impaired bilirubin metabolism.
Gastroesophageal Varices Collateral venous pathway that occurs due to portal hypertension. As portal pressure elevates, becomes vulnerable to rupture.
Portal hypertension Elevated pressure in the portal system. Sluggish or obstructed flow through the portal vein/system.
Hepatic Encephalopathy Exact cause unclear. Hepatic failure or sever chronic liver disease. Associate with elevated ammonia levels. Asterixis (classic physical finding): liver flap
Ascites Accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity. Advanced liver disease. Intraabdominal accumulation of sodium, water, and protein.
Cirrhosis Irreversible end stage of multiple liver diseases. Fibrosis & wide spread scarring secondary to inflammation. Results in permanent alteration of hepatic blood flow.
Alcoholic Liver disease Abnormal deposits of fat in liver cells.
Hepatitis A Virus Changes in the Liver that is transmitted through Fecal-Oral or Sexual
Hepatitis B Virus Transmission by parenteral contact with blood, blood products..
Hepatitis C Virus Important occupational risk for health care workers. Iv drug use, Blood transfusions.
Hepatitis D Virus Requires an infection with Hepatitis B to survive. Transmission by parenteral routes. Exposure to blood, Iv drug users. No specific treatment
Hepatitis E Virus Transmitted Fecal-Oral. Most common cause of acute hepatitis in developing countries.
Created by: whitneydpugh