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Psych 2213 Ex 1

Level 3 Psych exam 1 vocab

TermDefinition
asylum safe refuge or haven offering protection; in US, became a term used to describe institutions for the mentally ill
case management management of care on a case by case basis, representing an effort to provide necessary svcs while containing cost; in community, case mgmt svcs include assessing med and psych svcs and providing assistance with tasks of daily living
deinstitutionalization deliberate shift in care of the mentally ill from institutional care in state hospitals to care in community based facilities & through community-based services
DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) taxonomy published by the APA; the DSM-IV-TR describes all mental disorders and outlines specific diagnostic criteria for each based on clinical experience and research
managed care concept designed to purposely control the balance between the quality of care provided and the cost of that care
managed care organization developed to control the expenditure of insurance funds by requiring providers to seek approval before the delivery of care
mental disorder DSM-IV-TR: clinically significant behavior or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an ind and that is associated w present distress or disability or w a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom
mental health state of emotional, psychological, and social wellness evidenced by satisfying relationships, effective behavior and coping, positive self-concept, & emotional stability
phenomena of concern describes 12 areas of concern that mental health nurses focus on when caring for pts
psychotropic drugs drugs that affect mood, behavior, and thinking that are used to treat mental illness
self-awareness process of developing an understanding of one's own values, beliefs, thoughts, feelings, attitudes, motivations, prejudices, strengths, and limitations and how these qualities affect others
standards of care authoritative statements by professional organizations that describe the responsibilities for which nurses are accountable; care that nurses provide to pts meets set expectations and is what any nurse in a similar situation would do
utilization review firms developed to control the expenditures of insurance funds by requiring providers to seek approval before delivery of care
akathisia intense need to move about; characterized by restless movement, pacing, inability to remain still, and the pt's report of inner restlessness
anticholinergic side effects dry mouth, constipation, urinary hesitancy or retention, dry nasal passages, and blurred near vision; commonly seen as side effects of medications
antidepressant drugs primarily used in treatment of major depressive illness, anxiety disorders, the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression
anxiolytic drugs used to treat anxiety and anxiety disorders, insomnia, OCD, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol withdrawal
Black Box Warning medication package inserts must have a highlighted box, separate from the text, that contains a warning about the life-threatening or otherwise serious effect(s) of the med
computed tomography (CT) diagnostic procedure in which precise x-ray beam takes cross-sectional images (slices) layer by layer
depot injection a slow-release, injectable form of antipsychotic medication for maintenance therapy
dopamine a neaurotransmitter located primarily in the brain stem; has been found to be involved in control of complex movements, motivation, cognition, regulation of emotional responses
dystonia extrapyramidal side effect to antipsychotic med; incl acute muscular rigidity & cramping, stiff or thick tongue with diff swallowing, &, in severe cases, laryngospasm & resp diff; aka DYSTONIC REAX
efficacy maximal therapeutic effect a drug can achieve
epinephrine derivative of norepinephrine, most prevalent neurotransmitter in the nervous system, loc primarily in the brain stem, & plays a role in changes in attention, learning, and memory, sleep and wakefulness, and mood regulation
extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) reversible mvmt disorders induced by antipsychotic or neuroleptic medication
half-life the time it takes for half of the drug to be eliminated from the bloodstream
kindling process the snowball-like effect seen when minor seizure activity seems to build up into more frequent and severe seizures
limbic system area of the brain located above the brain stem that includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic test used to visualize soft tissue structures; energy field is created with a magnet and radio waves, then converted to a visual image
mood-stabilizing drugs used to treat bipolar d/o by stabilizing the pt's mood, preventing or minimizing the highs and lows that characterize bipolar illness, & treating acute episodes of mania
neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) potentially fatal, idiosyncratic reaction to an antipsychotic (or neuroleptic) drug
neurotransmitter the chemical substances manufactured in the neuron that aid in the transmission of information throughout the body
norepinephrine the most prevalent neurotransmitter in the nervous system
off-label use a drug will prove effective for a disease that differs from the one involved in original testing and FDA approval
alternative medicine therapies used IN PLACE of conventional treatment
behavior modification method of attempting to strengthen a desired behavior or response by reinforcement, either positive or negative
behaviorism school of psychology that focuses on observable behaviors and what one can do externally to bring about behavioral changes. Does not attempt to explain how the mind works
client-centered therapy focused on the role of the client, rather than the therapist, as the key to the healing process
closed groups structured to keep the same members in the group for a specified number of sessions
cognitive therapy focuses on immediate thought processing: how a person perceives or interprets his/her experience and determines how he/she feels and behaves
complementary medicine therapies used with conventional medicine practices
coutertransference occurs when therapist displaces onto the client attitudes or feelings from his/her past; process that can occur when the nurse responds to client based on personal, unconscious needs and conflicts
crisis turning point in an ind's life that produces an overwhelming emotional response; individual is confronting life circumstance or stressor that cannot be managed through customary coping strategies
crisis intervention includes a variety of techniques, based on the assessment of the ind in crisis, to assist in resolution or management of the stressor/circumstance
dream analysis primary method used in psychoanalysis; involves discussing a client's dreams to discover their true meaning and significance
education group therapeutic group; provides info to members on a specific issue: for instance, stress mgmt, med mgmt, or assertiveness training
ego psychoanalytic theory, the balancing or mediating force between the id & superego; represents mature and adaptive behavior that allows a person to fx successfully in the world
ego defense mechanisms cognitive distortions a person uses unconsciously to maintain a sense of control in a situation, to lessen discomfort, & to deal with stress
family therapy form of group therapy in which the client and his/her family members participate to deal with mutual issues
free association psychoanalytic method used to gain access to subconscious thoughts and feelings in which the therapist tries to uncover the pt's true thoughts and feelings by saying a word and asking the pt to respond quickly with the 1st thing that comes to mind
group therapy therapy during which pts participate in sessions with others; the members share a common purpose and are expected to contribute to the group to benefit others and to receive benefit from others in return
hierarchy of needs a pyramid used to arrange and illustrate the basic drives or needs that motivate people; developed by Abraham Maslow
humanism focuses on a person's positive qualities, his.her capacity to change (human potential), and the promotion of self-esteem
id psychoanalytic theory, the part of one's nature that reflects basic or intimate desires (pleasure-seeking behavior), aggression, and sexual impulses; seeks instant gratification & has no regard for rules or social convention
individual psychotherapy method of bringing about change in a person by exploring his/her feelings, attitudes, thinking, and behavior; involves a one-on-one relationship between the therapist and pt
integrative medicine
milieu therapy concept involves pt's interactions w one another, that is, practicing interpersonal rel skills, giving one another feedback about behavior, & working cooperatively as a group to solve problems
negative reinforcement involves removing a stimulus immediately after a behavior occurs so that the behavior is more likely to occur again
open groups an ongoing group that runs indefinitely; members join or leave the group as they need to
operant conditioning theory that says ppl learn their behavior from their history or past experiences, particularly those experiences that were repeatedly reinforced
parataxic mode begins early in childhood as child begins to connect experiences in sequence; may not make logical sense of experience & may see them as coincidence & chance events
participant observer the therapist's role, meaning that the therapist both participates in and observes the progress of the relationship
positive reinforcement a reward immediately following a behavior to increase the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
prototaxic mode characteristic of infancy and childhood that involves brief, unconnected experiences that have no relationship to one another; adults with schizophrenia exhibit persistent prototaxic experiences
psychiatric rehabilitation services designed to promote the recovery process for pts with mental illness; not limited to modification mgmt and symptom control; includes personal growth reintegration into community, inc independence and inc quality of life
psychoanalysis focuses on discovering causes of pts unconscious and repressed thoughts, feelings, and conflicts believed to cause anxiety & helping to gain resolution (Freud)
psychosocial interventions nursing activities that enhance the pts social and psychological fx and improve social skills, interpersonal relationships, and communication
psychotherapy group goal of the group is for members to learn about their behaviors and to make positive changes in their behaviors by interacting and communicating with others as members of a group
self-actualized describes a person who has achieved all the needs according to Maslow's hierarchy and has developed his/her fullest potential in life
self-help groups members share a common experience, but the group is not a formal or structured therapy group
subconscious thoughts or feelings in the preconscious or unconscious level of awareness
superego psychoanalytic theory, part of a person's nature that reflects moral and ethical concepts, values, and parental and social expectations; therefore in direct opposition to the id
support group organized to help members who share a common problem to cope with
syntaxic mode begins to appear in SA children and becomes more predominant in preadolescence; person begins to perceive him/herself and the world within the context of the env and can analyze experiences in a variety of settings
systematic desensitization behavioral technique used to help overcome irrational fears and anxiety associated with a phobia
therapeutic community or milieu beneficial environment; interaction among pts is seen as beneficial, and txt emphasizes the role of this client-to-client interaction
therapeutic nurse-patient relationship professional, planned relationship between pt and nurse that focuses on pt needs, feelings, problems, and ideas; interaction designed to promote pt growth, discuss issues, and resolve problems; 3 phases
transference occurs when the pt displaces onto the therapist attitudes and feelings that the pt originally experienced in other relationships; it is common for the pt to unconsciously transfer to the nurse feelings he/she has for others
acceptance avoiding judgements of the person, no matter what the behavior
advocacy process of acting on the pt's behalf when he/she cannot do so
attitudes general feelings or a frame of reference around which a person organizes knowledge about the world
beliefs ideas that one holds to be true
confidentiality respecting the client's right to keep private and info about his/her mental and physical health and related care
congruence occurs when words and actions match
duty to warn EXCEPTION to confidentiality; when hcp are legally obligated to warn another person who is the target of threats or plan by the client, even if threats were discussed during therapy sessions otherwise protected by confidentiality
empathy ability to perceive the meanings and feelings of another person and to communicate that understanding to the person
exploitation (PEPLAU - WORKING PHASE) phase of nurse-client relationship, when the nurse guides the client to examine feelings & responses & develop better coping skills & more positive self-image; encourages behavior change & develops independance
genuine interest truly paying attention to the pt, caring about what he/she is saying; only possible when the nurse is comfortable with him/herself and aware of his/her strengths and limitations
intimate relationship rel between two people who are emotionally committed to each other; both are concerned about having their ind needs met and helping each other meet needs as well; rel may include sexual or emotional intimacy & goal sharing
orientation phase beginning of the nurse-client relationship; begins when the nurse and pt meet and ends when the pt begins to identify problems to examine
patterns of knowing 4 patterns of knowing in nursing: empirical knowing, personal knowing, ethical knowing, and aesthetic knowing; provide the nurse with a clear method of observing & understanding every pt interaction
positive regard unconditional, nonjudgmental attitude that implies respect
preconceptions the way one person expects another to behave or speak; often a roadblock to the formation of an authentic relationship
problem identification part of the working phase of the nurse-client situation, when the client identifies the issues or concerns causing problems
self-disclosure revealing personal info such as biographical info and personal experiences, ideas, thoughts, and feelings about oneself
social relationship primarily initiated for the purpose of friendship, socialization, companionship, or accomplishment of a task
termination or resolution phase final stage in the nurse-client relationship; begins when the pt's problems are resolved and concludes when the relationship ends
therapeutic relationship aka therapeutic nurse-client relationship
therapeutic use of self nurses use themselves as a therapeutic tool to establish the therapeutic relationship with clients and to help them grow, change, and heal
unknowing when the nurse admits he/she does not know the pt or the pts subjective world, this opens the way for a truly authentic encounter; nurse in a state of unknowing is open to seeing and hearing the pts views without imposing any of his/her own
values abstract standards giving a person a sense of right and wrong and establishing a code of conduct for living
working phase in the therapeutic relationship, the phase where issues are addressed, problems identified, and solutions explored; nurse and pt work to accomplish goals; contains Peplau's phases of prob id and exploitation
abstract messages unclear patterns of words that often contain figures of speech that are difficult to interpret
active listening concentrating exclusively on pt's words, refraining from other internal mental activities
active observation watching the speaker's nonverbal actions as he/she communicates
assertive communication ability to express positive and negative ideas and feelings in an open, honest, and direct way. Recognizes rights of both parties; speaker is cal; makes specific, factual statements; and focuses on "I" statements
body language nonverbal form of communication: gestures, postures, movements, and body positions
circumstantiality use of extraneous words and long, tedious descriptions
closed body positions nonverbal behavior such as crossed legs and arms folded over chest that indicate the listener may be failing to listen, defensive, or not accepting
communication process people use to exchange information
concrete messages words that are as clear as possible when speaking to the pt so that the pt can understand the message; concrete messages are important for accurate information exchange
congruent messages when communication content and processes agree
context environment in which an event occurs; includes the time and physical, social, emotional, and cultural environments
content verbal communication; the literal words that a person speaks
cues verbal or nonverbal messages that signal key words or issues for the pt
overt cues
covert cues
directive role asking direct yes/no questions and using problem-solving to help the client develop new coping mech to deal with present, here-and-now issues
distance zones amount of physical space between people during communication; US and Canada and many Eastern Europeans - 4 distance zones gen observed: intimate, personal, social, and public
eye contact looking into the other person's eyes during communication
incongruent message when the communication content and process disagree
intimate zone space of 0 to 18 inches between people; amt of space comfortable for parents with young children, ppl who mutually desire personal contact, or ppl whispering; invasion by anyone else is threatening and produces anxiety
nondirective role using broad openings and open-ended questions to collect information and help the pt to identify and discuss the topic of concern
nonverbal communication behavior that accompanies verbal content, such as body language, eye contact, facial expression, tone of voice, speed and hesitations in speech, grunts and groans, and distance from listener
personal zone space of 18 to 36 inches; a comfortable distance between family and friends who are talking
process in communication, denotes all nonverbal messages that the speaker uses to give meaning and context to the message
proxemics the study of distance zones between people during communication
public zone space of 12 to 25 feet; acceptable distance between a speaker and an audience, between small groups, and among others at informal functions
social zone a space of 4 to 12 feet, which is the distance acceptable for communication in social, work, and business settings
spirituality pt's beliefs about life, health, illness, death, and one's relationship to the universe; involves the essence of a person's being & his/her beliefs about the meaning of life and the purpose for living
therapeutic communication an interpersonal interaction between the nurse and the client during which the nurse focuses on the pt's specific needs to promote an effective exchange of info
verbal communication the words a person uses to speak to one or more listeners
culturally competent being sensitive to issues rel to culture, race, gender, sexual orientation, social class, economic status, and other factors
culture all socially learned behaviors, values, beliefs, and customs, transmitted down to each generation, as well as a population's ways of thinking that guide its members' views of themselves and the world
environmental control refers to the pt's ability to control the surroundings or direct factors in the environment
ethnicity concept of people identifying with one another based on a shared heritage
hardiness the ability to resist illness when under stress
race division of humankind possessing traits that are transmitted by descent and sufficient to identify it as a distinct human type
resilience defined as having healthy responses to stressful circumstances or risky situations
resourcefulness involves using problem-solving abilities and believing that one can cope with adverse or novel situations
self-efficacy a belief that personal abilities and efforts affect the events in our lives
sense of belonging feeling of connectedness with or involvement in a social system or environment of which a person feels an integral part
social network groups of people whom one knows and with whom one feels connected
social organization refers to family structure and organization, religious values and beliefs, ethnicity, and culture, all of which affect a person's role and, therefore, his/her health and illness behavior
social support emotional sustenance that comes from friends, family members, and even health-care providers who help a person when a problem arises
socioeconomic status refers to one's income, education, and occupation
time orientation whether or not one views time as precise or approximate; differs among cultures
abstract thinking ability to make associations or interpretations about a situation or content
affect outward expression of the pt's emotional state
automatisms repeated, seemingly purposeless behaviors often indicative of anxiety (i.e. drumming of fingers, twisting hair, or tapping foot); unconscious mannerism
blunted affect showing little or a slow-to-respond facial expression; few observable facial expressions
broad affect displaying a full range of emotional expressions
circumstantial thinking term used when a pt eventually answers a question but only after giving excessive, unnecessary detail
concrete thinking when pt continually gives literal translations; abstration is diminished or absent
delusion a fixed, false believe not based in reality
flat affect showing no facial emotion
flight of ideas excessive amt and rate of speech composed of fragmented or unrelated ideas; racing, often unconnected, thoughts
hallucinations false sensory perceptions or perceptual experiences that do not really exist
ideas of reference pt's inaccurate interpretation that general events are personally directed at him.her, such as hearing a speech on the news and believing the message has personal meaning
inappropriate affect displaying a facial expression that is incongruent with mood or situation; often silly or giddy regardless of circumstances
insight ability to understand the true nature of one's situation and accept some personal responsibility for that situation
judgement refers to the ability to interpret one's environment and situation correctly and to adapt one's behavior and decisions accordingly
labile rapidly changing or fluctuating; such as someone's mood or emotions
loose associations disorganized thinking that jumps from one idea to another with little or no evident relation between the thoughts
mood refers to the pt's pervasive and enduring emotional state
neologisms invented words that have meaning only for the pt
psychomotor retardation overall slowed movements; a general slowing of all movements; slow cognitive processing and slow verbal interaction
restricted affect displaying one type of emotional expression, usually serious or somber
self-concept the way one views oneself in terms of personal worth and dignity
tangential thinking wandering off the topic and never providing the info requested
thought blocking stopping abruptly in the middle of a sentence or train of thought; sometimes a pt is unable to continue the idea
thought broadcasting delusional belief that others can hear or know what the pt is thinking
thought content what the client actually says
thought insertion delusional belief that others are putting ideas or thoughts into the pts head; that is, the ideas are not those of the pt
thought process how the patient thinks
thought withdrawal delusional belief that others are taking the client's thoughts away and the client is powerless to stop them
waxy flexibility maintenance of posture or position over time even when it is awkward or uncomfortable
word salad flow of unconnected words that convey no meaning to the listener
assault any action that causes a person to fear being touched, without consent or authority, in a way that is offensive, insulting, or physically injurious
autonomy person's right to self-determination and independence
battery involves harmful or unwanted contact with a client, actual harm or injury may or may not have occurred
beneficence refers to one's duty to benefit or promote good for others
breach of duty nurse (or physician) failed to conform to standards of care, thereby breaching or failing the existing duty; nurse did not act as a reasonable, prudent nurse would have acted in similar circumstances
causation action that constitutes a breach of duty and was the direct cause of the loss, damage, or injury; in other words, the loss, damage, or injury would not have occurred if the nurse had acted in a reasonable, prudent manner
deontology theory that says ethical decisions should be based on whether or not an action is morally right with no regard for the results or consequences
duty existence of a legally recognized relationship, that is, physician to client, nurse to client
ethical dilemma situation in which ethical principles conflict or where there is no one clear course of action in a given situation
false imprisonment unjustifiable detention of a client, such as the inappropriate use of restraint or seclusion
fidelity refers to the obligation to honor commitments and contracts
injury or damage the pt suffered some type of loss, damage, or injury
justice refers to fairness, or treating all people fairly and equally without regard for social or economic status, race, sex, marital status, religion, ethnicity, or cultural beliefs
least restrictive environment treatment appropriate to meet the pts needs with only necessary or required restrictions
malpractice type of negligence that refers specifically to professionals such as nurses and physicians
mandatory outpatient treatment
negligence an unintentional tort that involves causing harm by failing to do what a reasonable and prudent person would do in similar circumstances
nonmaleficence the requirement to do no harm to others either intentionally or unintentionally
restraint the direct application of physical force to a person, without his/her permission, to restrict his/her freedom of movement
seclusion involuntary confinement of a person in a specially constructed, locked room equipped with a security window or camera for direct visual monitoring
tort a wrongful act that results in injury, loss, or damage
utilitarianism a theory that bases ethical decisions on the "greatest good for the greatest number"; primary consideration is on the outcome of the decision
veracity the duty to be honest or truthful
Created by: JaeLaw23