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kaplan Qs

randome topics

Patients with down syndrome have an extra copy of amyloid precurosr protein (APP)
an extra APP copy is thought to be the reason for the association of down sydrome and ? Alzheimer disease
superoxide dismutase gene is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi
Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted by Ixodes tick in the Northeast, Midwest, and West Coast
Clues for Lyme Disease deer hungting, Conneticut, Rash, polyarthritis (acute followed by chronic), migrating rash (erythema migans), Bells palsy, signs of cardiac arrhythmia or pericarditis
aplastic crisis is causec by parvovirus B19 in patients with sickle cell anemia
Erythema nodosum is caused by what bug Coccidiodides immitis in the desert of the US Southwest
Meckel diverticulum is located where? distal ileum withing 30 cm of ileaocecal valve; it might become inflamed if it contains ectopic pancreatic tissue or gastric mucosa, which may produce ulceration and the clasic clinical presentation of massive, painless recal bleeding
massive painless rectal bleeding one thing to consider is? meckel diverticulum in the ilieum
Botulinum toxin type A is made by Clostridium botulinum
How does Botulinum toxin work? binds to receptor sites on motor nerve terminals, enters the nerve terminals, and inhibits the release of acetylcholine
local anesthetics such as lidocaine work by? blockage of voltage-gated sodium channels in neurons
Dantrolene sodium a muscle relaxant that acts by abolishing excitation-contraction coupling in muscle cells, probably by action on the ryanodine receptor.
How do you treat maliganant hyperthermia? Dantrolene
Ryanodine receptors It is the major cellular mediator of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) in animal cells
What conditions are likely present in someone with sleep apnea? hypoxemia with hypercapnea (too much CO2)
acrosome reaction allows fusion of the spermatozoan with the ovum
what is nifedipine and what is it used for Nifedipine is a drug belonging to a class of pharmacological agents known as the calcium channel blockers. It can be used to treat chronic hypertension in pregnant women (others that can also be used include labetalol and methyldopa)
organism most commonly responsible for pseudoappendicitis in the United States is ? and how is it transmitted? Yersenia enterocolitica, which is transmitted via contaminated pork or milk
What diseases do ticks transmit? Tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease
Is it normal to see a positive urine dipstick glucose test in a pregnant woman? Yes, in pregnancy ther is reduced glucose threshold, meaning that glucose will be seen in the urine
Sjogren syndrome an autoimmune disease that damages salivary glands and tear glands. Patients typically have dry eyes and mouth.
anterior uveitis most common form of ocular inflammation encountered. It is a common cause of a painful red eye. Inflammation of the iris.
Both psoriatic arthritis and acute anteriror uveitis are associated with? HLA-B27
(T or F) Alkaline phospatase (ALP) levels are raised after bone fracture due to the increase in obteoblastic activity True
(T or F) children have higher levesl of ALP as compared with adults, but no greater than 5 times the upper limit? True
What is found in bee venom that causes direct degranulation of mast cells (in the absence of type 1 hypersensitivity)? Mellitin
Which complement components are the anaphylatoxins? C3a and C5a
Among bronchiogenic carcinomas, the most common causes of Superior Vena Cava syndrome (in order of frequency) are? 1. small cell carcinoma 2. epidermoid carcinoma 3. adenocarcinoma 4. large cell carcinoma
Clinical presentation of a child that has complications of chicken pox? congenital rubella syndrome: patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary stenosis, cateracts microcephaly, and deafness
If a child has measles from rubeola prior to age 2, what can be seen 6-7 years later? changes in personality, behavior, and memeory; myclonic jerks; blindness; spacticity may appear 6-7 years after infection
Rubella is also known as 3 day rash
What is a clinical sign of rubeola (measles) infection Koplik's spots, small red spots with blue-white centers that appear inside the mouth
What is the name of the virus that cuases rubeola (measles)? paramyxoviridae Morbillivirus.
What can be some complications of the mumps? pancratitis and orchitis when older individuals aquire the infection
Parvovirus B19 slapped-cheek fever in school aged children; aplastic crisis in sickle-cell anemia patients
IL-4 what cells make it and what is its action? Source: TH2 Action: B-cell differentiation, switch to IgE
IL-5 what cells make it and what is its action? Source: TH2 cells Action: B-cell differentiation, switch to IgA
IL-6 what cells make it and what is its action? Source: Macrophages Action: endogenous pyogen, acute phase reactant
IL-3 Source and action? Source: Many cells Action: stimulate myeloid bone-marrow cells
IL-2 Source and action? Source: TH cells Action: Increase cell division
IL-1 Source and action? Source: Macrophages Action: endogenous pyogen
T-cell deficiencies may present with infections with ? opportunistic organisms such as Candida, Pneumocystis, or Cytomegalovirus
acid fast staining 1. carbolfuchsin 2. acid-alcohol wahsing out stage 3. methylene blue (acid fast retain the carbolfuchsin)
gram stain 1. crytal violet 2. gram's iodine 3. safranin
What do you treat Rocky Mountain Spotted fever with? tetracyclins but doxycycline is DOC when the patient has renal failure since it is excreted in the feces
rash that starts at the limbs and spreads to the center of body are indicative of ? Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Rickettsia Rickettsiae is a Gram neg ATP-deficient prokaryote is transmitted by? Dermacentor ticks
Created by: alphaladai
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