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chapter 5-6 vocab


thermal energy is the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of the particles that make up material
temperature represents the average kinetic energy of the particles that make-up material. the greater the average kinetic energy of the particles the greater the temp.
heat is the movement of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object
radiation the transfer of thermal energy from one material to another by electromagnetic waves. All matter including the Sun transfers thermal energy by radiation.
conduction the transfer of thermal energy between materials by the collisions of particles. Conduction continues until the thermal energy of all particles in contact is equal.
thermal conductors material through which thermal energy flows easily. Example: medals
thermal insulation material through which thermal energy flow easily. Ex: cloth
specific heat amount of thermal energy required to increase the temperature of 1 kg of a material by 1 degrees Celsius. All materials have a specific heat. Example: specific heat of water is very high, taking a large amount of energy to increase the te
thermal contraction is a decrease in a materials volume when its temperature decreases
thermal expansion is a increase in a materials volume when its temperature increases.
convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of particles from one part of a material to another. Only occurs in fluids
convection currents movement of fluids in a cycle because of convection. Convection currents circulate the water in Earth's oceans and other bodies of water. This plays an important role in Earth's climates.
heating appliance a device that converts electric energy into thermal energy.Examples: curling iron, coffeemakers
thermostat a device that regulates the temperature of a system.Example: refrigerator, toasters
refrigerator device that uses electric energy to transfer thermal energy from a cooler location to a warmer location.
heat engine a machine that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy.
solids matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume. Particles in a solid are close together (they vibrate back and forth). Types of solids: crystalline solid (ex: diamond) and amorphous solid(ex:charcoal)
liquid matter with a definite volume but no definite shape. Liquids can flow and take the shape of their containers. Particles move faster than a solid and in turn move slightly father apart.
viscosity a measurement of a liquids resistance to flow. Ex: honey has a high viscosity and water has a low viscosity.*The warmer the liquid the decrease in viscosity
surface tension the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid.
gases matter that has no definite volume and no definite shape. Particles move even farther apart than solids or liquids.Particles spread out to fill a container.
vapor the gas state of a substance that is normally a solid or a liquid at room temperature.
melting change of matter from a solid to a liquid. Thermal energy must be added.
freezing changed from a liquid state to a solid state
vaporation change from a liquid to a gas.
boiling vapor ization that occurs within a liquid.
evaporation vaporization that occurs only at the surface of a liquid.
condensation change of state from a gas to a liquid.
sublimation change of state from a solid to a gas without going through the liquid state. Ex.Dry ice
deposition change of state of a gas to a solid without going through the liquid state.
molecular theory is an explanation of how particles in matter behave.
pressure is the amount of force applied per unit of area. When particles collide with their container, pressure results.
boyle's law states that pressure of a gas increases if the volume decreases and pressure of a gas decreases if the volume increases, when temperature is constant.
Charles law states that the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature, if the pressure is constant.
Created by: abri_lucio