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Science Ch. 5 and 6

Solids Matter with a definite shape and definite volume. Particles are packed close together.
Liquids Matter with a definite volume but no definite shape. Particles move faster than a solid.
Viscosity Measurement of a liquids resistance to flow.
Surface Temperature The uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid.
Gases Matter that has no definite shape or volume.
Melting Change of matter from a solid to a liquid. Must have thermal energy applied.
Freezing Change from a liquid state to a solid state.
Vaporization Change from a liquid to a solid.
Sublimation Change of state from a solid to a gas without going through the liquid state.
Deposition Change of state of a gas to a solid without going through the liquid state.
Molecular Theory is an explanation of how particles in matter behave.
Pressure is the amount of force applied per unit of area. When particles collide with their container, pressure results.
Pressure and Volume when the volume is greater, the particles have more room to move (fewer collisions-pressure is less).
Boyle's Law states that pressure of a gas increases if the volume decreases and pressure of a gas decreases if the volume increases, when temperature is constant.
Charles Law states that the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature, if the pressure is constant.
Thermal Energy is the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the particles that make up a material.
Temperature represents the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up a material. The greater the average kinetic energy of particles the greater the temperature.
Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object.
Thermal energy is transferred in three ways radiation, conduction, convection.
Radiation the transfer of thermal energy from one material to another by electromagnetic waves. All matter including the Sun transfers thermal energy by radiation.
Conduction the transfer of thermal energy between materials by the collisions of particles. Conduction continues until the thermal energy of all particles in contact is equal.
Thermal conductors material through which thermal energy flows easily.
Thermal insulators material through which thermal energy does not flow easily.
Specific Heat amount of thermal energy required to increase the temperature of 1 kg of a material by 1 degrees Celsius. All materials have a specific heat.
Thermal Contraction is a decrease in a materials volume when its temperature decreases.
Thermal Expansion is a increase in a materials volume when its temperature increases.
Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of particles from one part of a material to another. Only occurs in fluids.
Convection Currents movement of fluids in a cycle because of convection. Convection currents circulate the water in Earth's oceans and other bodies of water. This plays an important role in Earth's climates.
Heating Appliance a device that converts electric energy into thermal energy. Examples: curling iron, coffeemakers
Thermostat a device that regulates the temperature of a system.
Refrigerator device that uses electric energy to transfer thermal energy from a cooler location to a warmer location.
Heat Engine a machine that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy.
Created by: wdelzotto