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Nutrition

NUR100 Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
Gastrointestinal system consists of? Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and rectum
The gastrointestinal system is how long? approximately 25 feet
What dose the gastrointestinal system do? digests food and eliminates waste
The Lumen (mucosa, submucosa, musularis, and serosa) dose what? secretion, digestion, absorption, motility and elimination.
The stomach is the glandular and endocrine organ
the stomach consists of? cardia, fundus, body and antrum
the stomachs function is to begin the digestive process by cephalic phase, gastric phase and intestinal phase and is also a food reservoir
The pancreas is a gland that secretes enzymes and insulin
the pancreases function is to exocrine function; to secrete enzymes for digestion. endocrine function; use beta cells to produce insulin
The Liver is essential for life; is used for storage, protection, and metabolism
the gallbladder is used to collect, store, and concentrate of bile
The small intestine consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum
the small intestines function is? movement, digestion and absorption
The Large intestine consists of the cecum, colon (ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon) and canal, and rectum
the large intestines function is movement, absorption, and elimination
Laboratory tests blood test, urine tests, stool tests
radiographic tests x-rays, upper gastrointestinal series and small bowel series, Barium enema, CT, UItrasound, endoscopy, and colonoscopy
assessments of history include demographic data, family history, personal history, diet history, socioeconomic status, current health problems
Health assessment interview include determines problems with nutrition and GI function, weight, problems with bowels, dietary intake, rectal bleeding
psychosocial factors for nutrition include stress, depression, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia
the major function of nutrients are provide energy for body processes and movement, as well as provide structural material for building and maintaining body tissues
essential nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fiber, water, vitamins and minerals
Nutrients are organic, inorganic and energy-producing substances found in foods and required for body functioning
carbohydrates elements are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO)
simple carbohydrates are simple sugars
complex carbohydrates are starches and fiber
sugars are monosaccharides and disaccharides
carbohydrate digestion digestion that is aided by enzymes;ptyalin, pancreatic amylase, maltase, sucrose, and lactase
carbohydrate metabolism is a mojor source of energy, broken down into glucose and used or stored, insulin enhances the transport of glucose into cells
carbs are stored as glycogen or fat
glycogen is a larger compound molecule
glycogenesis is the process of glycogen formation
proteins elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
proteins major functions are tissue building, growth and maintenance, then energy
the 9 essential amino acids (AA) are threonine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and histidine
the nonessential amino acids are glycine, alanine,aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, hyroxyproline cysteine tyrosine, serine
nonessential amino acids the body can manufacture, body reconstructs the proteins eaten into these elements
complete proteins contain all essential AA; meats, fish, poultry, dairy products and eggs
incomplete proteins lack 1 or more essential AA usually derived from vegetables
protein digestion path mouts; pepsin, pancrease; trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, and small intestine; aminopeptidase, depeptidase
protein storage absorbed through the small intestine and into the blood.liver uses some AA to synthesize protein, plasma carries some
anabolism building tissue
catabolism breaking down proteins
nitrogen balance state when nitrogen intake equals nitrogen output
lipids elements-carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; hydrogen is higher in lipids than in carbs
lipids are fatty acids; greasy and insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol; fats and oils
fats are solid at room temperature
oils are liquid at room temperature
saturated fatty acids all carbon atoms filled with hydrogen, solid at room temperature
unsaturated fatty acids have at least 2 carbon atoms NOT attached to hydrogen but instead have double bond; liquid at room temperature
cholesterol is fatlike substance produced by the body; found in foods of animal origin: milk, egg yolks, and organ meats
lipid digestion path small intestine; bile, pancreatic lipase, enteric lipase and intestinal enzyme; end products: glycerol, fatty acids, and cholesterol
water is the most basic nutrient,47-55% body weight
waters function is solvent, transport (blood), controls body temperature, lubricant
micronutrients (vitamin) organic compound cannot be manufactured by the body, needed for metabolic processes
Fat soluble vitamins A,D,E, and K
water soluble vitamins C, B complex (B1,B2,B3,B6,B9,B12)
vitamin A prevents night blindness, promotes growth, healthy skin and reproductive function
vitamin A sources fish, sweet potatoes, leafy green vegetables, carrots, eggs, and whole milk products
vitamin D helps absorption and use of calcium and phosphorus; strong bones
vitamin D sources sunlight, eggs, fortified dairy products, sardines, cod liver oil, chicken liver, and fatty fish
vitamin E antioxidant; prevents cell membrane damage
vitamin E sources vegetable oil, nuts, seeds, olives, spinach and asparagus
vitamin K helps blood clotting and bone development
vitamin K source leafy green vegetables, meat milk, egg yolks, and tomatoes
vitamin C promotes healing; antioxidant; improves iron absorption
vitamin C sources citrus fruits, strawberries, tomatoes, potatoes, leafy vegetables, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products
Thiamin B1 coenzyme used in energy metabolism CHO found in pork, legumes, peanuts, enriched or whole grain products
Riboflavin B2 coenzyme used in energy metabolism, found in dairy products, meats, eggs, enriched grain products, green leafy vegetables. deficiency is seen as skin lesions
niacin B3 coenzyme used in energy metabolism, found in nuts and meats. deficiency is seen at pellagra
Pyridoxin B6 coenzyme used in amino acid metabolism, found in high protein foods. deficiency is seen as nervous, skin, and muscular disorder
Folic acid B9 coenzyme used in DNA and RNA metabolism; builds red blood cells. found in green vegetables, orange juice, nuts, legumes and grain products
cobalamin B12 coenzyme used in DNA and RNA metabolism; builds red blood cells; cellular growth. found in fish, shell fish, meat, eggs, and dairy
minerals are found in organic compounds as inorganic compounds and as free ions, not produced by the body
Energy is used for voluntary activities; talking and walking. involuntary activities; breathing, enzyme secretion
IBW ideal body weight; is the optimal weight recommended for optimal health
BMI body mass index is wt in kg over ht in meters
factors that affect nutrition development, gender, ethnicity and culture, beliefs about food, personal preferences, religion practices, lifestyles, medications and therapy, health, alcohol consumption, advertising, psychological factors
Created by: katpeterson