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Section 11

Learning

TermDefinition
classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) unconditioned stimulus(meat) produces an unconditioned response(drooling). When a neutral stimulus is associated with the unconditioned stimulus it becomes a conditioned stimulus(bell) capable of producing a conditioned response(drooling, no meat present)
operant conditioning (BF Skinner) shaping of behavior with reinforcement (reward) and punishment- behaviors that are reinforced (rewarded) will continue and increase, behaviors that are punished will decrease and stop.
positive reinforcement rewarding by giving something good
negative reinforcement rewarding by taking away something bad
positive punishment punishing by applying something bad
negative punishment punishing by taking away something good
primary reinforcers natural, universal reinforcers such as food, water, and sex
secondary reinforcers learned reinforcers such as grades, trophies, and money
generalization tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning or similar to the original reinforcement in operant conditioning
discrimination ability to distinguish between different stimuli in classical conditioning or different reinforcements in operant conditioning and not respond accordingly
fixed interval for example, first response after very two minute period has passed
variable interval for example, first response after average two minute intervals, but intervals could range from a few seconds to several minutes
fixed ratio for example, every fifth response
variable ratio for example, every fifth response on average, but could range from 1 to 10 responses
observational learning albert bandura- learning by watching others- social learning, modeling- vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment
Created by: pinoybidd3