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Stack #137400


living things eat, grow, maintain themselves, repair cell damage, regulate heat, reproduce
prokaryotic no nucleus; less complex; bacteria; 1 circular chromosome
eukaryotic nulceus; more complex, fungus, animals, plants;linear chromosome
Cell cycles Gap 1, Synthesis, Gap 2, Mitosis
Cell Synthesis Stage Makes exact copy of DNA
Gap 1 Cell doubles in size
Gap 2 Makes machinery for divisioin
Mitosis Cell divides into 2 daughter cells
Meiosis Makes 4 daughter haploid cells
Haploid cells contain 1/2 of parent cell DNA
Meiosis Forms gametes (egg and sperm cells)
Anaphase sister chromatids pulled apart
Photosynthesis starts with 6 carbon dioxide, 6 water, and sunlight
Photosynthesis yields 1 glucose, 6 oxygen
Glucose starting point for other carbohydrates, lipids
Light dependent reaction sunlight hits chlorophyll and releases an electron
ATP energy molecule of cells
3 carbon sugar molecules one molecule of glucose
1 glucose molecule yields 38 ATP moleculels
Innate immune response nonspecific; anatomical barriers (skin, tears, sweat)
Acquired immune response specific; B cells and T cells
B cells attack pathogens in bodily fluids
T cells targets pathogens inside the body's cells
4 inner planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Terrestrial Planets 4 inner planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars rocky, small, dense, have atmospheres
Mercury little atmosphere due to low gravitational pull, 430 to -170 degrees Celcius, 88 day orbit
Venus very dense atmosphere, 96% CO2, spins counterclockwise, 243 days to make 1 full spin, 225 day orbit around sun
Mars 95% CO2, thin atmosphere, red dirt, 2 years to orbit, 1/2 size of Earth; 2 moons
Mass amount of matter in an object; solids, liquids, gases
Earth 24 hour day causes less temperature fluctuation, water vapor helps regulate the green house effect
Outer Planets Jovian Planets; less dense; mostly gas; large
Jovian Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
Jupiter hydrogen, helium, and small amounts of other gases; spins in 10 hours; high atmospheric pressure; 28 moons
Saturn Rings made of rock and ice; lowest density of all planets; 25 moons
Uranus Tilted on its side; rolls around the sun rather than spins on its axis
Neptune atmosphere of hydrogen and helium; 8-11 moons; ring system
Pluto no longer a planet due to size, difference in orbit and composition
Planets orbit the Sun on the same plane (ecliptic plane) or same angle
Sound and light waves
Sound waves require a medium (solid, liquid, or gas)
Light waves can use a medium, but not required; electromagnetic; consistes of moving electrons
Waves vibration of energy; carry energy
Sine curve an up and down drawing of a wave
Amplitude how high a wave goes
Frequency the number of vibrations in a given time
Transverse wave vibration is at right angles to the direction of the wave; electromagnetic waves
Longitudinal wave vibration is in the same direction the wave is traveling
Speed of sound 330 meters/second
Sound can be reflected
Electromagnetic induction changing magnetic fields induce an electric field so together they continue to move
Gamma rays highest frequency
Radio waves lowest frequency
Visible light waves middle frequency
Red lowest frequency of visble colors
Violet highest frequency of visible colors
Ultraviolet slightly higher frequency than violet
Infrared slightly lower frequency than red
Characteristics of Light waves reflection, refraction, and diffraction
Reflection reflects at the same angle or 90 degrees (mirror)
Refraction travels through a new medium, changes speed and angle (rainbows)
Light can exist as a wave or particle
Wave-particle duality the ability of light to be a wave or particle
Photon a light particle; tiny particles of energy
System a group or series of objects that we put together in an attempt to understand them better
Models mental pictures or working ideas of how nature works or predicting how it will work
Evidence gathered during experiments to help explain phenomena
Evolution (blank)
Equilibrium homeostasis (temperature regulation - sweating)
Copernicus 1543 said that planets orbited the sun rather than vice versa
Plate Tectonics unifying theory in geology that explains the changing surface of the earth's crust
Lithosphere crust and upper most portion of the mantle; 8 large plates
Heat convection makes Earth's plates move
Plates Earth's crust/dirt; includes continental crust and oceanic crust
Earth's sections inner and outer core, mantle, crust
Crust rocky, outermost part of the earth, least dense of all layers
Litho Greek for "rocky"
Mantle under the crust; partly molten (liquid) rock
Causes plates to move heat and pressure from gases
Molten rock heats up becoming less dense and rises upward; cools becoming denser and sinks downward
Asthenosphere just below the lithosphere, soft zone of the upper mantle
Plates ride/move on the asthenosphere
Divergent plate boundary plates moves apart from each other; molten lava from mantle moves up, making new rock
Seafloor spreading when molten lava from mantle moves up, making new rock in the oceans
Continental rift zone when molten lava from mantle moves up, making new rock in the continents
Convergent plate boundary two plates move together
Ocean trench where convergent plates meet in the ocean and the older one subducts under the younger one because it is denser
Himalayan Mountains convergent boundaries where 2 plates whose leading edges are continental crusts meet
Mt St Helens convergent boundaries where continental crust meets oceanic crust
Transform boundary two plates slide past each other; San Andreas Fault
Hot Spot when there is a mantle plume in the asthenosphere; form volcanoes when plate moves over it
Atom particles electrons, protons, neutrons
Atom forces strong, weak, and electrical force
Nucleon both protons and neutrons, found in nucleus
Nuclear energy both fission and fusion
Strong force attracts nucleons; acts over very short distances
Electrical force when protons repel protons because of their positive charge; over more area than a strong force
Weak force to do with neutrinos, used in beta decay
Fusion occurs when two small nuclei are fused into a larger nucleus; in the sun when 2 hydrogen atoms are fused into 1 helium atom
Fusion occurs only at very high temperatures; hard to sustain the energy needed to be a useful form of energy; does not result in radioactive by-products
Fission splitting of an atomic nucleus; occurs naturally; can be induced; used to create energy for electricity
Fission occurs in rocks and any material that has a nucleus with an atomic number higher than 82; results in radioactive by-products
Radioactive more energy in atoms that needed so the atoms use spontaneous fission to get rid of/shed the excess energy
Potential energy stored energy; energy that could be used/created
Kinetic energy energy of movement; energy that is being used
Electricity made up of charged particles or atoms
Atoms positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons; always in motion unless at absolute zero
Electric charges produce magnetic fields
AC current moves back and forth
DC current goes in one direction
Current electricity when electrons are flowing
Static electricity when there is a separation of positive and negative charges and the charge builds up
Insulators prevent the flow of electricity
Conductors allow the flow of electricity (metal)
Series circuits all the switches and outlets work from one current; one goes out, they all go out
Parallel circuits separate the current; if one goes out the others keep working
Magnetism depends on the spin of the electrons in a substance; electrons must spin in the same direction
Energy what moves matter
Gravitational potential energy a boulder on the edge of a cliff; the higher the cliff, the higher the amount of potential energy
Thermal energy the total kinetic and potential energy of particles
Temperature measures the average amount of heat energy in an object
2nd law of thermodynamics heat always spontaneously flows from warmer objects to cooler objects (ice in water, heat flows from water to ice)
1st law of thermodynamics heat energy is conversed as it flows from one system to another; conservation of energy
Conduction heat is transferred by the movement of atoms in a substance; metals are good conductors because their electrons are loosely held
Convection takes place in gases and liquids; hot air rising, cold air sinking
Insulators wood, paper, air; electrons are held more tightly to the nucleus, so less movement
Radiation heat transfer in the form of electromagnetic waves; the sun
ecology the study of relationships between abiotic (non-living) and living (biotic) parts of an ecosystem
Abiotic things non-living; rocks, soil, water, minerals
Populations group of the same species living in the same area
Community all of the living things and studying the relationships that exist between plants, insects, mammals, birds, etc
Photosynthesis flow of energy starts with the sun's energy which plants convert to sugar, a chemical energy
Plants autotrophs
Heterotrophs consumers (of plants and things that eat plants)
Primary consumers things that directly eat plants
Secondary consumers things that eat the primary consumers; usually animals
Omnivores eats both plants and animals
Energy transfer only 10% of plant energy is transferred to primary consumers; 90% is used to live; by the 3rd level, only 1% is left of the original energy
Decomposer organisms that feed on dead material and break it down so it becomes part of the soil; bacteria and fungi
Symbiotic relationships parasitism, commensalism, mutualism
Parasitism parasites; one organism is helped while the other is harmed (fleas)
Commensalism one organism benefits, the other is neither helped nor harmed (remoras and sharks)
Mutualism both organisms benefit (fungi and plants)
Biomes ecosystems; terrestrial and aquatic
Aquatic biomes both fresh and salt water environments
Three freshwater zones Littoral, Limnetic, and Profundal zones
Littoral zone warm, exposed to light, many organisms (algae, insects, fish, amphibians)
Limnetic zone close to the surface but far from shore; phytoplankton, zooplankton
Profundal zone deep water, few organisms
Saltwater biomes Photic, aphotic, and benthic zones
Photic zone near the surface with enough light for photosynthesis
Aphotic zone little sunlight, limited food availability
Benthic zone ocean surface; lobsters, clams, worms
Ocean biomes Intertidal, neritic and underwater, and ocean zones
Intertidal closest to the shore
Neritic and underwater near the coast
Oceanic zone far from shore
Nucleus includes protons and neutrons
electrons found outside of the nucleus
Atoms two distinct regions - nucleus and the electron cloud
Number of protons determines the type of element
Number of electrons equals the number of protons; involved in forming bonds
Neutrons add to the mass of the atom; differing numbers of neutrons can form various isotopes of atoms
Helium 2 protons and 2 electrons
Protons and Neutrons have the same amount of mass
Periodic table groups elements in groups have very similar properties; placed in columns with one color
Periodic table rows atoms on the left side are larger than atoms on the right
Periodic table electronegativity atoms in bottom left corner have less electronegativity than top right
Atomic number represents the number of protons
Chemical bonds form when atoms come together, rely on the number of valence electrons
Valence electrons attract and repel; can be transferred or shared; the number of electrons in the outermost shell of an atom
Ionic bond when atoms transfer electrons and results in 2 atoms with a charge (ions)
Covalent bond shared electrons
Polar covalent bond electronegativity; nucleus pulls the electrons with more force than another nucleus involved in the bond so the electrons are not shared equally
Redox reactions oxidation-reduction reactions; electrons are lost from one substance and gained by another substance
Reducing agent reactant that loses the electron; becomes oxidized
Oxidizing agent substance that gains the electron
Cell division mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis duplicates the chromosomes and generates 2 identical cells
sister chromatids exact copies of each other
Reproductive cells egg and sperm go through meiosis not mitosis
Crossing over where the parents' genes are mixed up and increases genetic variation
Chromosome long sequence of DNA
DNA polymer of nucleotides known as A, T, C, G
A T C G Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
Genetic variation meiosis results in variation of genetic information; DNA from both parents is combined; eye, hair color
environmental variation traits that are not influenced by genetics; muscle structure
Gregor Mendel laws of heredity; pea plants
Recessive traits traits that skip a generation but are not lost, just hidden
Mendels 1st law dominant and recessive alleles; we all have two alleles for each trait
Mendels 2nd law independent assortment; flower color and height are independent of each other; if genes are found on the same chromosome and are relatively close together they are more likely to be inherited together
Mutations any unexpected change in the DNA sequence; frequently brought on because of the environment
Weathering when rocks and minerals are broken down into smaller pieces called sediments
Mechanically weathering rock is broken down but still has same composition; caused by wind, water freezing, melting, re-freezing (ice-wedging/frost shattering) in cracks, root-pry
Chemical weathering changes in rock due to a chemical reaction; acid rain
Erosion the process of moving the sediment from one location to another; rivers, wind, floods, ocean waves, glaciers
Abrasion particles in the wind knock other particles off of the surface
Striations gouges in the ground formed from glaciers
Deposition where the moving sediment is laid down
Archipelago result of volcanic activity
Landforms archipelago, v-shaped and u-shaped valleys, butte, delta
Delta when the water slows down as it reaches slower moving water the sediment is deposited
Speed how fast something travels; distance divided by time
Acceleration change of velocity (speed or direction) over time; going in a circle at the same speed in still acceleration
Velocity speed in a given direction
1st law of motion an object in motion stays in motion and an object at rest stays at rest unless a force acts on it (inertia)
Inertia the resistance of an object to motion
Friction depends on the type of surface and the amount of force between the surface and the object; usually the force that stops objects from moving
Mass the amount of matter in an object; it also measures the amount of inertia
2nd law of motion acceleration equals the force divided by the mass; greater force = greater acceleration, less force = less acceleration
3rd law of motion action-reaction
Work force x distance
Simple machines don't decrease amount of work, just the amount of force; ramps
Rocks minerals which can be a single element or more than one element chemically combined; aggregates of minerals - they retain their properties even though they are part of the rock
Minerals naturally occuring, solid, definite chemical composition, crystalline structure, and inorganic
Rock types igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
Igneous rock melted magma that cools either above or below the surface; when cooled slowly (below the surface) crystals grow bigger - granite, diorite; when cooled more quickly (surface) crystals are smaller - obsidian, basalt
How does heat affect rocks Heat drives the chemical reactions that rearrange or create new minerals; pressure from the overlying layers causes less space between particles causing the rocks to be denser
Foliated bands that form when the minerals in the rock align in a particular direction
Nonfoliated no bands - marble
Sedimentary rocks rocks weathered into sediments, eroded to new locations, deposited, then compacted and cemented into rock; can be detrital or chemical; coal
Detrital rock rock formed from weathered rock; classified by the size of the sediments
Chemical rock formed from minerals dissolved in water
metamorphic rock formed when other kinds of rocks are changed by great heat and pressure inside the earth; previously igneous or sedimentary
Limestone one of the most common types of chemical rocks
Rock cycle all three kinds of rocks can change into the other kinds, in no particular order
Created by: mauramcclellan