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Patho

Renal Disorders

TermDefinition
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) Often asymptomatic until late in disease course. Mestastatic. Risk increased 3-4x when a first degree relative has had the disease. Chest pain, dyspnea. Surgery, nephrectomy.
Acute Pyelonephritis Usually an “ascending” infection. Can arrive via bloodstream. Bacteria binds to epithelial cells. Right kidney. Ecoli is causative. Can lead to kidney scarring.
Chronic Pyelonephritis Characterized by small atrophied kidneys with diffuse scarring. Chronic or reucurrent infections. Interstitial inflammation. Reduction in the # of functional nephrons.
Obstruction Congenital or Acquired-calculi or tumors. Changes secondary to obstruction depend on location & size of obstruction. Stones
Hydroureter Complete obstruction of ureter. Hydronephrosis, Decreased GFR, Ischemic kidney damage.
Hydronephrosis Enlarged kidney due to dilation.
Glomerulopathies primary Primary. Only the kidney is involved
Glomerulopathies secondary Injury due to drug exposure infection, systemic or vascular pathology.
Nephritic Syndrome hematuria, mild to mod proteinuria, decreased GFR, hypertension, edema of hands and face, elevated creatinine, and may lead to renal failure.
Acute glomerulonephritis Dark Urine, Proteinuria, Edema, Hypertension. Patient History, Clinical manifestations, Urinalysis. Treat w/ Supportive care.
Chronic glomerulonephritis Pathologic process same as acute. Progresses into chronic end stage renal disease.Nephrons atrophy, become scarred and non-functioning.
Nephrotic syndrome Hallmark is edema. Treat with Diuretics. Lipid lowering meds..
Acute Renal Failure Potentially Reversible. Characterized by abrupt deterioration of renal function. Increase in serum creatinine 0.25 mg/dl.
Pre-renal acute renal failure Diminished perfusion to kidney. Drug use= ACEI, NSAIDS, ARB. Decrease in blood volume. Dehydration, Vomiting, Hemorrhage
Post-renal acute renal failure Obstruction of normal urine outflow from kidney. Signs and symptoms of fluid overload are present. Causes are BPH, Kinked catheters..
Intra-renal acute renal failure Caused by a dysfunction of he nephrons- Vascular, Interstitial, Glomerular, Tubular. Drug induced. Acute Tubular Necrosis- Most Common. Renal Cellular hypoxia.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) Progressive and irrevocable loss of functioning nephrons. 75% lost before symptoms manifest-fight to the finish! Aka End State Renal Disease (ESRD) Risk Factors- Diabetes, Hypertension
Complication of CKD Cardiovascular disease = Hypertension, Irregular pulse, Arrhythmias, Heart failure. Uremic Syndrome. Metabolic acidosis. Electrolytes imbalance. Dialysis is a treatment.
300-500 mL Normal bladder capacity (adult)
Incontinence 2-3x more common in women. uncontrollable bladder.
Neurogenic Bladder A disruption in the nervous control of micturition.
Urge incontinence Older men. Urgency/leakage of urine. Overactive
Stress incontinence Small amounts of urine lost with increased abdominal pressure. Sneezing/coughing. Laughing. Weakening of pelvic floor.
Overflow incontinence Bladder becomes so full it overflows. Obstruction prevents full emptying. Bladder can be too weak to contract.
Functional incontinence Physical or environmental limitations that prevent access in "time".
Cystitis (bladder infection) Bacteria normally cleared by "flushing" of urine itself. More common in females due to shorter urethra. E.coli mostly responsible.
CAUTIs Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections. Most common nosocomial infection today.
Created by: whitneydpugh