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Z - Micro 08

Micro 08

QuestionAnswer
Penicillin G mechanism penicillin β-lactam ring binds to and competitively inhibits transpeptidase --> transpeptidase can't cross link the repeating disaccharide units and peptides that make up the peptidoglycan layer --> bactericidal. Still works on Strep pneumoniae. Suscept
Ampicillin mechanism Penicillin with more G- coverage. Penicillin β-lactam ring binds to and competitively inhibits transpeptidase --> transpeptidase can't cross link the repeating disaccharide units and peptides that make up the peptidoglycan layer --> bactericidal. Can st
Amoxicillin mechanism Penicillin with more G- coverage. Penicillin β-lactam ring binds to and competitively inhibits transpeptidase --> transpeptidase can't cross link the repeating disaccharide units and peptides that make up the peptidoglycan layer --> bactericidal. Can st
Methicillin mechanism Penicillin that is resistant to β-lactamase. IV. Penicillin β-lactam ring binds to and competitively inhibits transpeptidase --> transpeptidase can't cross link the repeating disaccharide units and peptides that make up the peptidoglycan layer --> bacter
Why is methicillin not used anymore? What to use instead? Causes interstitial nephritis. Use nafcillin and oxacillin instead.
Nafcillin mechanism Penicillin that is resistant to β-lactamase. IV. Penicillin β-lactam ring binds to and competitively inhibits transpeptidase --> transpeptidase can't cross link the repeating disaccharide units and peptides that make up the peptidoglycan layer --> bacter
Oxacillin mechanism Penicillin that is resistant to β-lactamase. IV. Penicillin β-lactam ring binds to and competitively inhibits transpeptidase --> transpeptidase can't cross link the repeating disaccharide units and peptides that make up the peptidoglycan layer --> bacter
Cloxacillin mechanism Penicillin that is resistant to β-lactamase. Oral. Penicillin β-lactam ring binds to and competitively inhibits transpeptidase --> transpeptidase can't cross link the repeating disaccharide units and peptides that make up the peptidoglycan layer --> bact
Dicloxacillin mechanism Penicillin that is resistant to β-lactamase. Oral. Penicillin β-lactam ring binds to and competitively inhibits transpeptidase --> transpeptidase can't cross link the repeating disaccharide units and peptides that make up the peptidoglycan layer --> bact
Ticarcillin Anti-pseudomonal penicillin. It takes James Bond to kill Pseudomonas with his CAR his TICk and his PIPE bomb.
Carbenicillin Anti-pseudomonal penicillin. It takes Joames Bone to kill Pseudomonas with his CAR his TICk and his PIPE bomb.
Piperacillin Anti-pseudomonal penicillin. It takes Joames Bone to kill Pseudomonas with his CAR his TICk and his PIPE bomb.
Name the β-lactamase inhibitors Clavulanic acid, sulBACTAM, tazoBACTAM. BAC TAM CLAps when you inhibit the β-lactamases.
Clindamycin G+ and anaerobes above the diaphragm
How is ampicillin different from amoxicillin? AmOxicillin has great Oral bioavailability
Ampicillin and amoxicillin used on what organisms? ampicillin and amoxicillin HELPS (+) kill enterococci. Haemophilus influenzae, E.coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus, Salmonella, enterococci.
Penicillin used for…. G = IV, V = oral, G+ rods and cocci, G- cocci, spirochetes, strep pneumoniae
Penicillin allergies: rash, hemolytic anemia rash is Type I, anemia is Type II
Methicillin, Nafcillin, Oxacillin; cloxacillin, dicloxacillin used for… Staph aureus, except for MRSA
Ticarcillin, Carbenicillin, Piperacillin used for TCP Takes Care of Pseudomonas
Cephalosporin mechanism Penicillin but more resistant to β-lactamases.
1st generation cephalosporins Penicillin but more resistant to β-lactamases. Little boy playing viOLIN with an EX-bow, PEcK. CefazOLIN, cephalEXin. Proteus, Ecoli, Klebsiella
2nd generation cephalosporins Penicillin but more resistant to β-lactamases. Older sis that is wearing FAC FOX FUR. Cefaclor, Cefoxitin, Cefuroxime. HEN PEcKS. Hemophilus influenzae, Enterobacter, Niesseria, Proteus, Ecoli, Klebsiella, Serratia.
3rd generation cephalosporins Penicillin but more resistant to β-lactamases. The most NEGATIVE (serious G-) older brother (who has meningitis) TRIes to AX TAZ, the TAX guy. TAZ has Pseudomonas because he TRIes to have sex (gonorrhea). Ceftriaxone, Ceftazadime, Cefotaxime.
4th generation cephalosporins Penicillin but more resistant to β-lactamases. The POSITIVE oldest sister does ballet and PIRouettes and FlEPs. Cefpiramide, cefepime. Kills G+ and pseudomonas.
Name the cephalosporins that kill Pseudomonas Taz Fep Fop: Ceftazidime (3rd), Cefepime (4th), Cefoperazone (4th)
What drug to give for meningitis and why? Give 3rd generation cephalosporins because they can cross the blood brain barrier: ceftriaxone, cefTAZidime, cefoTAXime.
Mechanism of aztreonam Binds to transpeptidase of G- only. Resistant to β-lactamases. Kills G- and aerobes who wear KaPS. Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Serratia.
Who should be given aztreonam Those allergic to penicillin and those who have renal failure and can't use Aminoglycosides. Those who have
Mechanism of Imipenem Crosses out G+ cocci. Crosses out G- rods. Makes a noose for the anaerobes. Squeezes down in through the porins and binds to transpeptidase. Not broken down by β-lactamase, so bugs develop resistence to Imipenem by making porins smaller and by hydroly
Imipenem is DOC for what organism? Enterobacter
Adverse effects of Imipenem Squeezes through the porin channels so scratch up skin --> skin rash. Squeezed so much --> GI distress. Doubling over for tummy, hit head on side of porin channel --> CNS/seizures.
How is meropenem different from Imipenem? 1. Not susceptible to dihydroxypeptidase so don't have to give with Cilastin, 2. less CNS/seizure effects.
Name the antibiotics that are protein synthesis inhibitors buy AT 30, CELL at 50. Aminoglycosides (bactericidal -- all the others are bacteriostatic), Tetracyclines. Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Linezolid/Lincomycin, Clindamycin.
Polymyxins B/E Antibiotics that bind to LPS in cell membranes of G- bacteria & disrupt their osmotic properties with their hydrophobic tail. Polymyxins are cationic, basic proteins that act like detergents. MYXins MIX up membranes, mix up the brain (neurotoxicity), ki
Toxicity of chloramphenicol anemia (dose-dependent), aplastic anemia (irreversible), gray baby syndrome (can't conjugate the drug)
Mechanism of chloramphenicol Inhibits 50S peptidyltransferase
Resistance against penicillins and cephalosporins cleave β-lactamase ring
Resistance against aminoglycosides ations: Modification via acetylation, adenylation, or phosphorylation
Resistance against vancomycin terminal D-ala of cell wall component, which vancomycin binds to, is changed to D-lac ---> decreased vancomycin affinity for the cell wall
Resistance against chloramphenicol modification by acetylation -- pour chloramphenicol is like pouring acid (acetylation) into the bone!
Resistance against Macrolides Methylation of rRNA near erythromycin's ribosome-binding site
Resistance against Tetracycline decrease upTake to increase Transport out of the cell
Resistance against sulfonamides (SMX) altered enzyme (bacterial dihydropteroate synthetase), decreased uptake, or increased PABA synthesis
Resistance against Amantadine Antiviral that blocks virus from taking off its viral coat (M2 protein). Resistance - virus makes a mutated M2 protein that Amantadine can't bind to.
Resistance against Acyclovir It needs to be activated/phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase, so viruses that don't have thymidine kinase are therefore resistant to Acyclovir.
Resistance against Foscarnet Anti-viral for HERPES infection (with some anti-HIV action). Pyrophosphate analogue ---| DNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase. FOScarnet = pyroFOSphate analog. Resistance by mutating the viral DNA polymerase.
Resistance against ciprofloxacin Quinolones inhibit drug synthesis, recombination, and repair by inhibiting DNA gyrase or topoisomerase 4. Genes encoding resistance are chromosomally encoded -- mutations in structural genes for DNA gyrase and topoisomerase type 4. Another chromosomal m
Prophylaxis against meningococcal infection Rifampin DOC
Prophylaxis against gonorrhea Ceftriaxone (3rd generation cephalosporin)
Prophylaxis against syphilis Benzathine penicillin G. Avoid getting syphilis if you get a boyfriend who has a Benz and has got his G thang going on.
Prophylaxis against recurrent UTI's TMP-SMX DOC -- Kit should be on this!
Prophylaxis against endocarditis with surgical or dental procedures penicillins
Prophylaxis against Herpes infection in immunocompromised patients Acyclovir
Created by: christinapham