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Z - Micro 03

Micro 03

Bacillus - aerobic or anaerobic? Bacchus - wine - aerobic
Clostridium- aerobic or anaerobic? closet - no air - anaerobic
What is unique about bacillus anthracis? capsule made of protein -- others are made of polysaccharides
B. anthracis exotoxin - EF EDEMA FACTOR. A subunit, action. Increases cAMP --> impairs neutrophil fxn, causes massive edema
B. anthracis exotoxin - LF LETHAL FACTOR. Stimulates macrophage release of TNFa and IL-1
B. anthracis exotoxin - PA PROTECTIVE ANTIGEN. B subunit - promotes entry of EF into cells.
Dysphagia and diplopia, followed by muscle weakness after eating canned foods Clostridium botulinum, ate the toxin in the food, need to be intubated
Baby ate honey Clostridium botulinum, ate spores --> spores in GI tract --> release of toxin in the intestines --> floppy baby --> excellent prognosis
Spores or toxin in tetanus? Spores enter the body through skin trauma --> releases toxin called tetanospasmin
What does tetanospasmin do? acts on inhibitory Renshaw cell interneurons preventing the release of GABA and glycine, both are inhibitory NT's --> sustained tetanic contractions
Pt presents with lockjaw -- looks like a big grin Clostridium tetani
What is the test for Clostridium difficile? find TOXIN (not spore) in stool samples
Mechanism of C. difficile infection C. difficile makes toxin --> damage superficial layers of the colon (doesn’t invade) --> pseudomembranes
How to treat C. difficile infection? Pseudomembranous enterocolitis. Metronidazole and vancomycin -- runs through GI and doesn't get absorbed into bloodstream.
Pseudomembrane on pharynx - pediatric patient Corynebacterium diptheriae
What is the mechanism of damage by Corynebacterium diptheriae? exotoxin --> interfere with protein synthesis --> damages heart and neural cells
K+ tellurite culture - black colonies Corynebacterium diptheria
Loeffler's medium (can see reddish granules) Corynebacterium diptheria
how Corynebacterium diptheria gets its toxin lysogenic conversion by a temperate bacteriophage
Listeria monocytogenes - cause of meningitis in two groups neonates and immunocompromised
How to confirm bacterial meningitis? Lumbar puncture: CSF with hi neutrophils, high protein, low glucose, gram stain showing organisms)
Which organisms cause pseudomembranes? Clostridium difficile and Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Gram stain for corynebacterium diphtheriae G+ rod
Gram stain for haemophilus influenzae G- rod
Gram stain for Moraxella catarrhalis G- diplococcus
Gram stain for Pseudomonas aeruginosa G- rod
Gram stain for Klebsiella pneumoniae G- fat rod surrounded by mucoid capsule
How to see Legionella pneumophila IF stain or Dieterle silver stain
IgA1 Neisseria meningitidis - cleaves IgA in half!
What bacteria can extract Fe from human transferrin without requiring energy? Neisseria meningitidis
What other bacteria can obtain Fe from human transferrin or lactoferrin? E. coli (Fe-binding siderophore)
Where does Neisseria meningitidis live on the body? Nasopharynx
At-risk groups for Neisseria meningitidis infection 1. Infants aged 6 months to 2 years (when children don't yet manufacture their own antibodies and mom's abs are not effective anymore), 2. Army recruits in boot camp (carrier rates > 40%)
What should you suspect if baby <2 or army recruit comes in with petechial rash? Neisseria meningitidis -biopsy the petechiae and you should see diplococci on gram stain
If baby has bulging open anterior fontanelle meningitis in neonates
Patient is lying supine with leg at 90 angle to trunk. If extension of leg causes pain…. Kernig's sign --> meningitis. leg is fully bent in the hip and knee, and subsequent extension in the knee is painful (leading to resistance).[3]. This may indicate subarachnoid haemorrhage or meningitis.
Patient involuntarily lifts legs/arms when head is lifted and patient is restrained from sitting up. Meningial irriation. Meningitis. Brudzinski's sign
How to diagnose meningitis? Spinal tap and seeing the organism in the CSF
When would you use chocolate agar? When Neisseria is suspected (it's blood agar that's been heated)
When would you use Thayer-Martin VCN media? When Neisseria is suspected. Chocolate agar with abx: vancomycin (kills G+), colistin (kills all G- except Neisseria), nystatin (kills all fungi)
How to tell N. meningitidis from N. gonorrhea? N. meningitidis ferments maltose while the other does not (meningitidis has an "m" in the name)
Man comes in with painful urination and purulent urethral discharge N. gonorrhea infection.
How to treat N. gonorrhea infection? Ceftriaxone.
How does N. gonorrheal infection in women present? Asymptomatic urethritis, minimal urethral discharge, dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome N. gonorrhea or Chlamydia infection of capsule surrounding liver.
What is most common type of septic arthritis in young, sexually active individuals? N. gonorrhea
What is most common type of septic arthritis in infants? Haemophilus influenzae
What causes epiglottitis? Haemophilus influenzae Type B.
Under microscope, where would you look for Neisseria? Inside WBC's
Why are babies given that eye gel when they are born? Erythromycin eye drugs to protect against N. gonorrhea and chlamydia (can lead to blindness)
Created by: christinapham



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