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Z - Micro 01

Micro 01

QuestionAnswer
beta-lactam abx penicillins because they have a beta-lactam ring
penicillins bactericidal or bacteristatic? bactericidal
difference between bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and animal cytoplasmic membrane bacterial cytoplasmic membrane doesn't contain cholesterol or other sterols (except for mycoplasma pneumoniae, which has cholesterol)
what is the antigenic determinant of gram + bacteria? teichoic acid (in peptidoglycan layer)
what is the antigenic determinant of gram - bacteria? Endotoxin/Lipid A
Do gram + cells have endotoxin? No, except for Listeria monocytogenes
For which organisms would you use an acid fast stain? mycobacteria (TB or leprae), nocardia (partially acid fast), Cryptosporidium parvum (its oocysts are partially acid fast), Isospora belli (oocysts are acid fast)
Explain acid fast stain 1. red stain (carbolfuchsin) 2. heat to help dye penetrate, 3.acid poured (but the mycolic acid of acid fast orgs don't dissolve in the acid - hold on to the red color), 4.methylene blue stain. Acid-fast orgs stay red, while non-acid fast stains blue.
What does the acid fast stain bind to? mycolic acid in the cell wall of mycobacteria and nocardia
For which organism would you have to use a darkfield microscope? Spirochetes (Treponema pallidum, Borrelia, Leptospira)
What's special about cell wall of chlamydia? Cell wall doesn't have muramic acid
What's special about mycoplasma? No cell wall, and cholesterol in its cytoplasmic membrane
Bacterial DNA double stranded, circular
Bacteria are prokayotes or eukaryotes? prokaryotes
Bacterial ribosome 70S - two subunits: 50 S (targeted by erythromycin) and 30 S (targeted by tetracycline) -- protein synthesis blocked
Which bacteria must use host cell's machinery to acquire ATP? Chlamydia and Rickettsia
Which bacterial enzyme breaks down hydrogen peroxide? Catalase and Peroxidase
Which bacterial enzyme breaks down super oxide radicals? Superoxide dismutase
Budding yeast, narrow based buds Cryptococcus neoformans (fungus) -- the halo surrounding is the capsule made up of sugars
Yeast, broad based buds Blastomyces dermatitidis
Fruiting body, narrow angled, branching septate hyphae Aspergillus fumigatus
Wide-angled hyphae, non-septate Mucor
Likes to inhabit abandoned TB cavities Aspergillus fumigatus
Spherules with endospores Coccidioides immitis
Southwestern US Coccidioides immitis
Ohio/central Mississippi River Valley Histoplasma capsulatum
Great Lakes Blastomyces dermatitidis
Earthquakes --> dust Coccidioides immitis
chicken farmers Histoplasma capsulatum
Starlings (birds) Histoplasma capsulatum
fungus whose yeast is phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages Histoplasma capsulatum
fungus whose yeast looks like Mickey Mouse Cryptococcus neoformans (fungus)
How to treat Cryptococcus? Actinomycin
How to treat Histoplasma? Actinomycin
Mechanism of actinomycin? inhibit transcription. It does this by binding DNA at the transcription initiation complex and preventing elongation by RNA polymerase (also called Dactinomycin)
Fungus with a crown, septate, narrow angles Aspergillus fumigatus
Allergies to molds -- what kind of hypersensitivity? Type I
India ink stain Cryptococcus (fungus) -- the halo surrounding is the capsule made up of sugars
Quellung reaction ID bacteria with capsules. Abs bind to the capsule (opsonization) --> capsule swells with water --> can see the swelling through a microscope.
Obligate anaerobes (2) Clostridium and Bacterioides
What conditions can destroy an endospore Spores only by Bacillus and Clostridium. Autoclave conditions: 121 C for 15 minutes.
Facultative INTRACELLULAR organisms MY LIST for YOUR INTRAmural party includes LEGIONs of SALMON, BRUssel sprouts and FRENCH fries. Mycobacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia, Legionella, Salmonella typhi, Brucella, Francisella tularensis.
Exotoxins - A (damage, toxic) and B (binding, delivery) subunits The 2 SUBwoofers (A and B) playing ANTHRAX music is VIBRating DEEP in the CLOSet. Bacillus anthracis, Vibrio cholera, Corynebacteria diptheria, Clostridium tetani and botulinum.
Created by: christinapham
 

 



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