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BMMS Life Sci Chpt 4

Cell processes and energy

heterotroph an organism that cannot make its own food
autotroph an organism that makes its own food
photosynthesis the process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food
pigment colored chemical compounds that absorb light
stomata small openings on the undersides of leaves allowing carbon dioxide to enter the plant
chlorophyll the main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts
respiration the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose
fermentation an energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen
cell cycle the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
replication the cell makes an exact copy of the DNA in its nucleus
interphase the cell grows, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into two cells
mitosis the cells nucleus divides into two new nuclei
chromosomes double-rod structures
stem cells cells that differentiate throughout life
differentiation the process by which cells change in structure and become capable of carrying out specialized functions
cytokinesis the final stage of the cell cycle where the cytoplasm divides and is distributed to each of the two new daughter cells
Created by: tsheldon