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Pharmacology – First

Adverse effects of medications

QuestionAnswer
What drugs cause Cardiovascular Atropine-like side effects Tricyclics
What drugs cause Cardiac toxicity Doxorubicin (Adriamycin), daunorubicin
What drugs cause Coronary vasospasm Cocaine
What drugs cause Cutaneous flushing Niacin, Ca2+ channel blockers, adenosine, vancomycin
What drugs cause Torsades des pointes Class III (sotalol), class IA (quinidine), cisapride
What drugs cause Agranulocytosis Clozapine, carbamazepine, colchicine
What drugs cause Aplastic anemi Chloramphenicol, benzene, NSAIDs
What drugs cause Gray baby syndrome Chloramphenicol
What drugs cause Hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients IS PAIN isoniazid (INH), Sulfonamides, primaquine, aspirin, ibuprofen, nitrofurantoin
What drugs cause Thrombotic complications OCPs (e.g., estrogens and progestins)
What drugs cause Cough ACE inhibitors
What drugs cause Pulmonary fibrosis Bleomycin, amiodarone, busulfan
What drugs cause Acute cholestatic ;hepatitis Macrolides
What drugs cause Focal to massive ;hepatic necrosis Halothane, valproic acid, acetaminophen, Amanita phalloides
What drugs cause Hepatitis INH
What drugs cause Pseudomembranous ;colitis Clindamycin, ampicillin
What drugs cause Gynecomastia (Some Drugs Create Awesome, Excellent Knockers) Spironolactone, Digitalis, Cimetidine, Alcohol chronicuse, Estrogens, Ketoconazole
What drugs cause Hot flashes Tamoxifen
What drugs cause Gingival hyperplasia Phenytoin
What drugs cause Osteoporosis Corticosteroids, heparin
What drugs cause Photosensitivity (SAT for a photo) Sulfonamides, Amiodarone, Tetracycline
What drugs cause SLE-like syndrome (it’s not HIPP to have lupus)
What drugs cause Tendonitis, tendon rupture, and cartilage damage (kids) Fluoroquinolones
What drugs cause Fanconi’s syndrome Expired tetracycline
What drugs cause Interstitial nephritis Methicillin
What drugs cause Hemorrhagic cystitis Cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide
What drugs cause Cinchonism Quinidine, quinine
What drugs cause Diabetes insipidus Lithium, demeclocycline
What drugs cause Tardive dyskinesia Antipsychotics
What drugs cause Disulfiram-like reaction Metronidazole, certain cephalosporins, procarbazine, sulfonylureas
What drugs cause Nephrotoxicity & neurotoxicity Polymyxins
What drugs cause Nephrotoxicity & ototoxicity Aminoglycosides, loop diuretics, cisplatin
P-450 Inducers "Queen Barb takes Phenphen ;and Refuses Greasy Carved Steak" Quinidine (can inhibit too), Barbiturates, Phenytoin, Rifampin, Griseofulvin, Carbamazepine, St. John’s wort
P-450 Inhibitors Inhibitors Stop CyberKids from Eating Grapefruit. Isoniazid; Sulfonamides; Cimetidine; Ketoconazole; Erythromycin; Grapefruit juice
Iron Poisioning Mech Cell death due to peroxidation of membrane lipids
Iron Poisioning Symps acute gastric bleeding chronic metabolic acidosis, scarring (leading to GI obstruction)
Inhibited by Disulfiram Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
Competitive substrates for Alcohol dehydrogenase Ethylene glycol, Methanol, Ethanol
Ethylene glycol toxicity Acidosis, nephrotoxicity
Methanol toxicity Severe acidosis, retinal damage
Ethanol toxicity Nausea, vomiting, headache, hypotension
The toxicity of which alcoholic compound causes Acidosis, nephrotoxicity Ethylene glycol
The toxicity of which alcoholic compound causes Severe acidosis, retinal damage Methanol
The toxicity of which alcoholic compound causes Nausea, vomiting, headache, hypotension Ethanol
Too much Ethylene glycol can cause what compound to build up? Build up of Oxalic acid
Too much Methanol can cause what compound to build up? Build up of Formaldehyde;and formic acid
Too much EtOH can cause what compound to build up? Build up of Acetaldehyde
If you have a buildup of Oxalic acid, what type of alcohol toxicity is it? Ethylene glycol
If you have a buildup of formaldehyde, what type of alcohol toxicity is it? Methanol
If you have a buildup of acetaldehyde, what type of alcohol toxicity is it? Ethanol
Drugs that cause problems in patients with sulfa allergies Celecoxib, furosemide, thiazides, TMPSMX, sulfonyureas, sufasalazine
Herbal agents Clinical uses and Toxicities Echinacea Common cold; no major toxicities
Herbal agents Clinical uses and Toxicities Ephedra Same as ephedrine; CNS and cardiovascular stimulation; arrhythmias, stroke, and seizures at high doses
Herbal agents Clinical uses and Toxicities Feverfew Used for migraine. Adv: mouth ulcers, antiplatelet actions
Herbal agents Clinical uses and Toxicities Ginkgo Used for Intermittent claudication. Adv: anxiety, insomnia, antiplatelet actions
Herbal agents Clinical uses and Toxicities Kava Used for Chronic anxiety. Adv: sedation, ataxia, hepatotoxicity, phototoxicity, dermatotoxicity
Herbal agents Clinical uses and Toxicities Milk thistle Used for Viral hepatitis. Adv: Loose stools
Herbal agents Clinical uses and Toxicities Saw palmetto Used for Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Adv: ↓ libido, hypertension
Herbal agents Clinical uses and Toxicities St. John’s wort Used for Mild to moderate depression. Adv: phototoxicity; serotonin syndrome;with SSRIs; induces P450 system
Herbal agents Clinical uses and Toxicities Dehydroepiandrosterone Used for Symptomatic improvement in females with SLE or AIDS Androgenization (premenopausal women), estrogenic effects (postmenopausal), feminization (young men)
Herbal agents Clinical uses and Toxicities Melatonin Used for Jet lag and insomnia. Adv: Sedation, suppresses midcycle LH, hypoprolactinemia
Created by: christinapham