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Z - Pharmacology

First Aid - Pharm 5

QuestionAnswer
selectivity for Sympathomimetics - Phenylephrine α1 >α2
selectivity for Sympathomimetics - Albuterol β2 >β1
Mechanism/selectivity for Sympathomimetics - terbutaline β2 >β1
name the Sympathomimetic - α1, α2, β1, β2, low doses selective for β1 Epinephrine
name the Sympathomimetic - α1, α2 >β1 NE
name the Sympathomimetic - β1 =β2 Isoproterenol
name the Sympathomimetic - β1 >β2 Dobutamine
name the Sympathomimetic - D1 = D2 >β >α Dopamine
name the Sympathomimetic - Indirect general agonist, releases stored catecholamines Amphetamine - and - Ephedrine
name the Sympathomimetic - α1 >α2 Phenylephrine
name the Sympathomimetic - β2 >β1 Albuterol, - terbutaline
name the Sympathomimetic - Indirect general agonist, uptake inhibitor Cocaine
name the Sympathomimetic - Centrally acting α-agonist, ↓ central adrenergic outflow Clonidine, α-methyldopa
effect on BP and HR of - Norepinephrine (α > β), ↑ BP, ↓ HR (reflex bradycardia)
effect on BP and HR of - Epinephrine nonselective - NC BP( increases systolic, but decreases diastolic)
effect on BP and HR of - Isoproterenol (β > α), ↓ BP, ↑ HR
Applications of Sympathomimetics - Epinephrine Anaphylaxis, glaucoma (open;angle), asthma, hypotension
Applications of Sympathomimetics - NE Hypotension (but ↓ renal ;perfusion)
Applications of Sympathomimetics - Isoproterenol AV block (rare)
Applications of Sympathomimetics - Dopamine Shock (↑ renal perfusion), heart failure
Applications of Sympathomimetics - Dobutamine Shock, heart failure cardiac ;stress testing
Applications of Sympathomimetics - Amphetamine Narcolepsy, obesity, ADHD
Applications of Sympathomimetics - Ephedrine Nasal decongestion, urinary incontinence, hypotension
Applications of Sympathomimetics - Phenylephrine Pupil dilator, vasoconstriction, nasal decongestion
Applications of Sympathomimetics - Albuterol, terbutaline Asthma
Applications of Sympathomimetics - Cocaine Causes vasoconstriction and ;local anesthesia
Applications of Sympathomimetics - Clonidine, α-methyldopa Hypertension, especially with;renal disease (no ↓ in blood ;flow to kidney)
name the Nonselective α-blockers Phenoxybenzamine - phentolamine
name the α1 selective α-blockers Prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin
name the α2 selective α-blockers Mirtazapine
Nonselective α-blockers - Application and Toxicity Pheochromocytoma - Orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia
α1 selective α-blockers - Application and Toxicity Hypertension, urinary retention in BPH - -1st-dose orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, headache
α2 selective α-blockers - Application and Toxicity Depression - Sedation, ↑ serum cholesterol, ↑ appetite
Nonselective α-blockers - names and differences Phenoxybenzamine (irreversible) - phentolamine (reversible)
effects of an α-blocker (e.g., phentolamine) on BP responses to epinephrine and phenylephrine. The epinephrine response exhibits reversal of the mean blood pressure change, from a net increase (the α response) to a net decrease (the β2 response). The response to phenylephrine is suppressed but not reversed because phenylephrine is a “pure” α-agonis
β-blockers - non selective ones Nonselective (N or later)(β1 = β2)––propranolol, timolol, nadolol, pindolol (partial agonist), and - labetalol (partial agonist, and exception to the after N rule and the olol rule)
β-blockers - selective ones Before N - β1 selective (β1 > β2)–– Betaxolol, Esmolol (short acting), Atenolol, Metoprolol - Acebutolol (partial agonist hes and Ass),
β-blocker effect WRT - Hypertension ↓ cardiac output, ↓ renin secretion
β-blocker effect WRT - Angina pectoris ↓ heart rate and contractility, resulting in ↓ O2 consumption
β-blocker effect WRT - MI β-blockers ↓ mortality
β-blocker effect WRT - SVT ↓ AV conduction velocity
β-blocker effect WRT - CHF Slows progression of chronic failure
β-blocker effect WRT Glaucoma ↓ secretion of aqueous humor
which β-blockers - Tx for Glaucoma timolol
which β-blockers - Tx for SVT propranolol, esmolol
β-blockers - Toxicity (non cardiac) 1. Impotence, 2. exacerbation of asthma, 3. CNS adverse effects (sedation, sleep alterations), 4. diabetics can't feel low sugar
β-blockers - Toxicity (cardiac) -bradycardia, -AV block, -CHF
Created by: christinapham