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volcano A weak spot in the crust where molten material, or magma, comes from the surface.
magma Is a molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle.
lava Magma that reaches the surface.
Ring of Fire A major volcano belt that is formed by many volcanoes that rim the Pacific Ocean.
island arc A string of islands that is caused by a resulting volcano.
hot spot An area where material from deep within the mantle rises and then melts, forming magma.
element A substance that cannot be broken down into another substance.
compound A substance that is made up of two or more elements that have been chemically combined.
physical property Any characteristic of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substance.
chemical property A property that produces a change in the composition of the substance.
viscosity The resistance of a liquid to flowing.
silica Made up of particles of the elements oxygen and silicon. Silica is one of the abundant materials of the earth's crust.
pahoehoe Fast-moving, hot lava that has low viscosity.
aa Cooler slower-moving lava.
magma chamber The pocket where magma collects.
pipe A long tube in the ground that connects the magma chamber to earth's surface.
vent Where molten rock and gas leave the volcano.
lava flow The area covered by lava when it pours out the vent.
crater A bowl-shaped area that may form at the top of the volcano around the central vent.
pyroclastic flow The expultion of ash, cinders,bombs, and gases during an explosive volcanic eruption.
dormant Describes a volcano that is not currently active, but may become active in the future.
extinct Describes a volcano that is no longer active and is not likley to erupt again.
shield volcano A wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions.
cinder cone A steep cone-shaped hill or small mountain made of volcanic ash,cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcano's opening.
composite volcano A tall cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials.
caldera The large hole at the top of a volcano formed when the roof of a volcano's magma chamber collapses.
volcanic neck A deposit of hardened magma in a volcano's pipe.
dike A slab of volcanic rock formed when magma forces itself across rock layers.
sill A slab of volcanic rock formed when magma sqeezes between layers of rock.
batholith A mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cools inside the crust.
geothermal activity The heating of undergroud water by magma.
geyser A fountain of water and stream that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular intervals.
Created by: elliedo